Friday, October 31, 2008


Like much of the myth that is christianity, the story of Moses was
plagerized from earlier myths. This baby in a basket story was lifted
directly from the myth of Sargon of Akkad of around 2250 b.c. Sargon was
born, placed in a reed basket in order to avoid infanticide, and set adrift
in a river. He was in turn rescued and raised by Akki, a royal mid-wife.
Also, the Ten Commandments, they are taken outright from Spell 125 of the
Egyptian Book of the Dead. What the Book of the Dead phrased "I have not
stolen" became "Thou shall not steal," "I have not killed" became "Thou
shall not kill," "I have not told lies" became "Thou shall not bare false
witness" and so forth. In fact, the Egyptian religion is likely the primary
foundational basis for the Judeo-Christian theology. Baptism, afterlife,
final judgment, virgin birth and resurrection, crucifixion, the ark of the
covenant, circumcision, saviors, holy communion, the great flood, Easter,
Christmas, Passover, and many many more, are all attributes of Egyptian
ideas, long predating Christianity and Judaism.

The Pistol fires back: You've done your comparative religion homework. No
doubt world religions draw stories from similar sources. This doesn't make
them any more or less true. Whether or not the events contained in the Bible
are actually factual, does not make them any less true. The story of Moses
reveals the truth about the value of life and the need to protect and
preserve God-given life even when it means disobeying the law of the land.
That, my friend, is no myth.


singers look at this definition for KARA-OKIE spelled KYRA BOTS- KINS
Videoke" or "Karaoke", came from Japanese word "kara" means "empty" + "oke"

shortening of õkesutora or orchestra.
With the companies having granted the US Department of Justice (DoJ) two
extensions to issue a decision on the deal, a fresh round of public
commentary was to be expected.

JPMorgan analyst Imran Khan issued a research note on Wednesday that
re-examines the potential of Yahoo reviving a search-only deal with
Microsoft, which the internet search pioneer rejected back in July.
Previously, Microsoft had offered to buy all of Yahoo for $33 a share, but
then walked away from the table after Yahoo countered with $37 a share.

Khan, noting the unlikelihood the DoJ will sign off on the Yahoo-Google
partnership in its current form, said: "We estimate that Yahoo could gain an
additional $725m in annual OCF through a Microsoft search deal. In our
estimates, outsourcing search to Microsoft could lead to $1.4bn in cost
savings which would more than offset our estimated revenue loss of $649m
resulting from affiliate revenue loss and the revenue split with Microsoft."

Khan explained the benefits the deal would offer Yahoo: "Without its search
business, Yahoo would be very clearly positioned as a content and display
advertising entity, thereby clarifying and defining its purpose to
advertisers and users. Additionally, the one time cash infusion of $1bn (as
was made in a previous offer) from the search asset purchase would allow the
company to be nimble in buying back shares at depressed prices, making
strategic acquisitions, and making more targeted headcount cuts."

Yahoo had previously noted it expected to generate $800m in its first year
of a Google search-advertising agreement, in which it would allow Google to
run its ads on the Yahoo search pages.

Meanwhile, senator Joe Barton, who heads the US congressional committee on
energy and commerce, sent a letter on Tuesday to the head of the DOJ's
antitrust unit, Thomas Barnett.

In his letter to Barnett, Barton urges the DoJ to "thoroughly investigate
issues of competition and privacy that Yahoo failed to address fully in
responding to questions about the online search advertising partnership
agreement between Google and Yahoo".

Watch this

Video: Yahoo talks up Open Strategy

Barton also described his concerns about the deal: "Specifically, I am
concerned about the adverse effects such a partnership could have on
competition and pricing within the online search-advertising industry."

Expressing similar concerns is the US Public Interest Research Groups
(PIRG), a consumer group that opposes the proposed partnership. PIRG, which
does not accept any corporate donations, is sending opposition letters to
both Barnett and US attorney general Michael Mukasey, said Amina Fazlullah,
a PIRG spokeswoman.

She noted the organisation is concerned that the deal could leave Yahoo in a
weakened state. PIRG is concerned that companies in the internet industry,
when weakened, may take steps to regain a competitive edge by sharing an
increasing amount of their users' information, thereby affecting their

As a result, PIRG has been particularly interested in acquisitions in the
internet industry and their effects on those competitors that are not part
of the transactions.

Yahoo, however, contends its deal is misunderstood and would not result in
less competition or higher prices for advertisers. The internet search
pioneer has previously said it has no plans to exit the search-advertising
market should the deal be implemented.

In the meantime, Yahoo's shares Tuesday came within close range of falling
into the $10 a share range, setting a new five-year low of $11.25 a share
during intraday trading before ending the day at $12.36 per share. Yahoo's
shares closed Wednesday down 1.8 percent to $12.14 a share.

Credit: Yahoo-Google deal faces yet another round of concern from CNET


My mothers name Harold in the middle, My fathers name CRAVEN middle.. Dodge was my grandfathers name. Mary Elizabeth Craven Spurlock.. Chenot was my name Canada..
My birthright.. Richardson's Silas Barber Main street Hobart Oklahoma.. Hobart Ok.
Charlie Pride was with my mother in the fields.. Kiss an angel good morning? He was in third grade with my mom.. later moved to Grants Pass? Litton Industries?
My Uncles Johnny and Harry Oklahoma were P.O.W.'s ON WAKE ISLAND. Military on the move suffered greatly for the Freedom of all the world to have democracy.. The freedoms we hold as our own, as our birthright.. The freedom of speech of the written word.
the freedom to hold the treaty's written to protect our American heritage?
We need to come together as a nation for PEACE ON EARTH.. WE need to come together on the right to hold our grand children's future in our hands These are the promises of the Forefathers of Our great nation, these are the promises that were not kept.
the ages of the past re-unite your collective voice and find the contentment to do your job with the needs of the many in your words. WE have become aware.
Nathan Hale.. I may disagree with what you say, but I will go to my death defending Your right to say what you feel.. These are the promises of the past, this is the honor of our past. this is the truth that should be on the echoes of our collective soul. to the epigrams to the ones who held the Heart of Hearts in the world

Angel fire? hebrew discovery in the cresent MOON

The pottery fragment showed five lines of script

'Oldest Hebrew script' is found

Five lines of ancient script on a shard of pottery could be the oldest
example of Hebrew writing ever discovered, an archaeologist in Israel says.

The shard was found by a teenage volunteer during a dig about 20km (12
miles) south-west of Jerusalem.

Experts at Hebrew University said dating showed it was written 3,000
years ago - about 1,000 years earlier than the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Other scientists cautioned that further study was needed to understand

Preliminary investigations since the shard was found in July have
deciphered some words, including judge, slave and king.

The characters are written in proto-Canaanite, a precursor of the
Hebrew alphabet.

King David

Lead archaeologist Yosef Garfinkel identified it as Hebrew because of
a three-letter verb meaning "to do" which he said was only used in Hebrew.

"That leads us to believe that this is Hebrew, and that this is the
oldest Hebrew inscription that has been found," he said.

The shard and other artefacts were found at the site of Khirbet
Qeiyafa, overlooking the Valley of Elah where the Bible says the Israelite
David fought the Philistine giant Goliath.

Mr Garfinkel said the findings could shed significant light on the
period of King David's reign.

"The chronology and geography of Khirbet Qeiyafa create a unique
meeting point between the mythology, history, historiography and archaeology
of King David."

But his colleagues at Hebrew University said the Israelites were not
the only ones using proto-Canaanite characters, therefore making it
difficult to prove it was Hebrew and not a related tongue spoken in the area
at the time.

Hebrew University archaeologist Amihai Mazar said the inscription was
"very important", as it is the longest proto-Canaanite text ever found.

"The differentiation between the scripts, and between the languages
themselves in that period, remains unclear," he said.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008


Adopt this mantra: Water vapor is good; standing water is bad.Not unlike totalitarian dictators of the past who promoted cults of
personality North Korea's leader Kim Jong Il, known as "Dear One,"
reinforces his control through fear and hate.

Like Hitler, Tojo and Mussolini, the original "Axis of Evil," Kim Jung Il
uses the requisite scapegoats, mythology, alleged conspiracies, grandiose
pretension and xenophobia, to reinforce his rule.

North Korea, frequently described as a "Stalinist state," follows that sorry
chapter in Russian history closely too. Stalin was responsible for the
deaths of millions of his countrymen and created an aura of almost
supernatural power and mystique about him.

"Stalinism" was by definition personality-driven.

And just like Stalin the "Dear One" largely possesses the minds of his
people by controlling all information within his country and virtually any
contact with the outside world. Kim Jong Il has carefully crafted a
worldview for North Koreans, which effectively excludes any objective
accounts of history.

Hopefully, one day North Korea will follow Russian history one more step and
eventually pull down the statues of the Stalinist demigods, who have brought
that nation decades of needless misery.


Private George Ellison, the last British soldier to die

By John Hayes-Fisher
Producer, Timewatch

In the closing minutes of World War I, the ceasefire within touching
distance, a handful of troops died. As the 90th anniversary of the Armistice
approaches, who were these men?

Just after 5 o'clock on the morning of 11 November, 1918, British,
French and German officials gathered in a railway carriage to the north of
Paris and signed a document which would in effect bring to an end World War

Within minutes, news of the Armistice - the cease fire - had been
flashed around the world that the war, which was meant to "end all wars",
was finally over.

And yet it wasn't, because the cease-fire would not come into effect
for a further six hours - at 11am - so troops on the frontline would be sure
of getting the news that the fighting had stopped.

That day many hundreds died, and thousands more injured.

Timewatch: The Last Day of World War I, is on BBC Two at 2015
GMT on Saturday 1 November
Or catch up later with the BBC iPlayer
The respected American author Joseph E Persico has calculated a
shocking figure that the final day of WWI would produce nearly 11,000
casualties, more than those killed, wounded or missing on D-Day, when Allied
forces landed en masse on the shores of occupied France almost 27 years

What is worse is that hundreds of these soldiers would lose their
lives thrown into action by generals who knew that the Armistice had already
been signed.

The recklessness of General Wright, of the 89th American Division, is
a case in point.

Seeing his troops were exhausted and dirty, and hearing there were
bathing facilities available in the nearby town of Stenay, he decided to
take the town so his men could refresh themselves.

"That lunatic decision cost something like 300 casualties, many of
them battle deaths, for an inconceivable reason," says Mr Persico.

Final fallen

So who were the last to die?

New research by the BBC's Timewatch tells the story of some of the
last to fall in WWI.

The final British soldier to be killed in action was Private George
Edwin Ellison. At 9.30am Private Ellison of the 5th Royal Irish Lancers was
scouting on the outskirts of the Belgian town of Mons where German soldiers
had been reported in a wood.

Michael Palin looks over Private Ellison's war record

Aged 40, Pte Ellison was not the typical conscript, says military
historian Paul Reed.

"He was a pre-war regular soldier; we can tell this by his number (L
/12643) which is consistent with a man who enlisted in the early years of
the 20th Century. He may even have been a Boer war veteran, considering his

It must have been odd for Pte Ellison to be back in Mons again. This
is where his war started four years earlier when he was part of the British
Expeditionary Force retreating from Mons in August 1914, just weeks after
the outbreak of the war.

"During his four years at the front, George saw every type of
warfare," says Mr Reed.

"He went into the first trenches as the war became deadlocked. He
fought in the first gas attack, and on the Somme in 1916, watched the first
ever tanks go up to the front."

Almost a million British soldiers had been killed in those intervening
years, yet almost miraculously Pte Ellison had so far escaped uninjured. In
just over an hour the ceasefire would come into force, the war would be over
and Pte Ellison, a former coal miner, would return to the terraced street in
Leeds to see his wife Hannah and their four-year-old son James.

And then the shot rang out. George was dead - the last British soldier
to be killed in action in WWI.

Although the last British soldier to die, Pte Ellison would not be the
last to be killed that morning. As the minutes ticked towards the 11 o'clock
ceasefire, more soldiers would fall.

At 10.45 another 40-year-old soldier, Frenchman Augustin Trebuchon,
was taking a message to troops by the River Meuse saying that soup would be
served at 11.30 after the peace, when he too was killed.

Astonished enemy

Augustin Trebuchon's grave - along with all those French soldiers
killed on 11 November 1918 - is marked 10/11/18. It is said that after the
war France was so ashamed that men would die on the final day that they had
all the graves backdated.

Just minutes before 11am, to the north around Mons, the 25-year-old
Canadian Private George Lawrence Price was on the trail of retreating German

It was street fighting. Pte Price had just entered a cottage as the
Germans left through the back. On emerging into the street he was struck by
the bullet which killed him.

But Pte Price's death at 10.58 was not the last. Further south in the
Argonne region of France, US soldier Henry Gunther was involved in a final
charge against astonished German troops who knew the Armistice was about to
occur. What could they do? He too was shot.

The Baltimore Private - ironically of German descent - was dead. It
was 10.59 and Henry Gunther is now recognised as the last soldier to be
killed in action in WWI.

Ninety years later, George Ellison's granddaughters Catherine and
Marie make an emotional first visit to the cemetery where their grandfather

Pte Ellison's granddaughters visit his grave for the first time

Catherine knows he died just five days short of her own father's
(George's only son James) 5th birthday. "It must have been terrible for my
grandma" she says.

It's the first time anyone from the family has seen George's grave. As
the two sisters lay white lilies beneath their grandfather's headstone,
Marie echoes what many families in Britain today still feel about those who
gave their lives in that war.

"We are very proud."


Add your comments on this story, using the form below.

My father was the doctor serving with the 2nd Kings African Rifles in
the bush on the Mozambique border on 11/11/18. It took three days for the
armistice message to get through (via the Germans) and there were several
serious skirmishes in the meanwhile killing a British officer and several
Antony Murphy, Birmingham

Many also fell after the armistice, news of this agreement to cease
hostilities took time to reach to the frontline in the far reaches. My great
grandfather was killed in Palestine after the 11/11/1918 armistice. I'm sure
he was not alone, sad but true.
Matthew, Swindon

Matthew, my grandfather was a Lewis gunner in the Machine Gun Corps;
initially on the Western Front but then in Palestine. I recall him telling
me, during my childhood, that he fought on for several days after 11/11/18
and that British soldiers were killed beyond Armistice Day.
David, Douglas

This is a tragic tale but let's also remember those who died in the
years after the end of WWI whilst clearing the battlefields of the Western
Front. There are many war graves to be found that are dated post 1918, many
of them are Royal Engineers who were killed by unexploded ordinance.
Simon Kirby, Melbourn, Cambridgeshire

In the same cemetery as Pte Ellison's grave are also the graves of the
first British soldier to be killed in the war, the first VC awarded during
the war, and Pte Price, who, until I read this article, I thought was the
last person to be killed, being shot when breaking cover to accept flowers
from a local. Outside Mons there is a memorial to mark the spot where the
first skirmish of the war took place. For anyone interested in the history
of the Great War, Mons & the surrounding area is well worth a visit.
An ex-soldier, Wales

I will be visiting St Symphorien Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery on
Sun 9 Nov 08 to attend the Act of Remembrance. The British Forces based in
Mons will remember Pte Ellison and the other British and Canadian soldiers
who lie at peace.
Iain Cassidy, Mons, Belgium

Fighting was going on across many sectors of the Western Front right
up to the Armistice at 11am, with Royal Artillery expending as much
ammunition as they could before the cease-fire. Many soldiers thought the
armistice was a sell-out, and wanted to press on into Germany as the German
army was beaten, and they knew it.
John Austin, London, England

The armistice was for aesthetics and symbolism of 11am on the 11th day
of the 11th month. An immediate ceasefire could have been ordered, instead
we had the incidents you name. I am sure there would have been others, even
at 5:30am, but the stories of men taking pot shots to relieve their
bitterness before the ceasefire and the casualties these caused would not
have happened. I believe the statistics show a large increase in casualties
on the final day as men tried to enact a futile revenge before it was too
late. The 11am ceasefire was the final example of the donkeys leading the
lions. A disastrous end to a disastrous war.
Ceri Davies, Cardiff

A family story is that my grandfather's cousin was killed on the
Western front at about 11.20 am on 11 November - after the formal Armistice,
because word hadn't reached the front. I don't know many details but I think
he might either have had the surname Taunton-Read (or Reid) or be of that
family. My grandfather's family were from Coventry.
Geraldine, London

I have often wondered how many men died while they waited for 11am.
War is such a tragic waste and these stories are particularly poignant.
Whyvonnie, Crediton, Devon

Very sad. We owe a huge debt to these soldiers who suffered terribly
in horrific conditions. It may be a long time ago but our gratitude should
never fade.
Trevor, Limoges, France

As an historian who has studied World War I, and a former U.S. Marine,
I am no longer shocked by the stupidity of the leaders of the various
countries and their willingness to sacrifice the the lives of the young. I
do remain saddened by the senseless slaughter and wonder if it will ever
David, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico

My Dad's Uncle died in Northern France two weeks after the end of the
war having served with the Royal Garrison Artillery. He died as a result of
the atrocious conditions, in his case pneumonia. Many thanks to the
Commonwealth War Graves Commission for their help when we were tracing what
happened to him.
Kieran Doody, Mornington, Co. Meath, Ireland

I am fortunate to have lead several tours for veterans to the Normandy
beaches and accompanied tours to Arnhem and the WWI battlefields in France &
Belgium. What strikes me most profoundly is how strongly the gratitude and
appreciation persists in the minds and memories of the local people of these
places of the sacrifices made by British and Commonwealth servicemen and
women [many nurses were killed tending those brought back to the dressing
stations behind the front lines]. It is possible, due to the superiority of
the Royal Navy, that Britain could have sat out WWI, certainly until the
entry into the conflict of the US. But the people of France & Belgium, with
Holland, Norway, Greece and countries of eastern Europe, have a deep respect
for Britain's commitment from the start of the two World Wars to free their
countries of the invader. I believe that if more British people realized
with how great a respect and affection their Armed Services are held by
those we went to help, more appreciation would be shown in our own country
for the great sacrifices of 1914-18 & 39-45. It is time we commemorated the
11th of the 11th with a national holiday, as they do in France. Lest we
Chris Nation, Bristol

ccRyderzz 1969 reinvested 2008: ccRyderzz 1969 reinvested 2008: My Ovation GUITAR 'Hope' on the inner side Stolen 1978

ccRyderzz 1969 reinvested 2008: ccRyderzz 1969 reinvested 2008: My Ovation GUITAR 'Hope' on the inner side Stolen 1978

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

ccRyderzz 1969 reinvested 2008: My Ovation GUITAR 'Hope' on the inner side Stolen 1978

ccRyderzz 1969 reinvested 2008: My Ovation GUITAR 'Hope' on the inner side Stolen 1978

My Ovation GUITAR 'Hope' on the inner side Stolen 1978

As an innocent child here in Eugene I regret that I wanted to be a Rock Star, I had no professional training but had an ear for Music. Any kind of song. In 3rd grade I sang at the Talent show in Paradise elementary school Mrs Winklbecker?
At Whitaker elementary school.. I sang to my friends "Where have all the flowers gone" In Spring Creek elementary school I sang to my hearts content. I sang, I believed, I dreamed, I walked the talk of becoming a Star someday.
Years later I was there in front of a crowd at a Club at a talent show in Alaska. I had a back up Band in E-Minor I sang. A man walked up too me
after I had placed 2nd in the talent show.
His name was Bill Pinkney a talent Scout, he said.. I was not impressed at first for I did not recognize him. But when I went to his office the next day.. Stacks and stacks of Music layouts were on the floor.. and he produced a photo album with Red Fox and the original Drifters were
sponsored by him on tour. He said would you like to be a star? He told me that I was in need of voice lessons and loose some weight. Little did I know I was pregnant with my first born child.
A situation that I had to come back to Oregon was brewing in the North. Bill gave me a singed autographed Photo and I was on a plane back to home. It was nice to have someone Believe in me to be a true Star and so I took My prized Guitar " An Ovation Round back On the inside of the guitar was the name "HOPE" in black letters ( My brother had painted the inside to protect the ownership of this special friend of mine..) I went to Salem to my foster moms and had no where to stay.. so I came back to Eugene with the only thing that mattered to me, My guitar a Christmas present from my late father and brother. The guitar is still here in Eugene
and the insides have been painted over. I want it back. It is mine. My town, my love of music
My dreams destroyed due to the wants of others to make me quiet on my belief of the "Bill of Rights" And Civil Rights, and common decency which seems to be slacking in Eugene Oregon.
I went to the E.R. in Salem Oregon only to find My blood had killed the Rabbit. (They used too test that way to find out if your pregnant) I was getting my life together and I had found a house with roommates of who I thought were professionals. I was attending classes moving on with my life. The only problem here was that a mistake had been made in the paperwork of the municipality from an attorney in Salem and the Lies of a doctor here in Eugene which destroyed any chance to make it as a Star.. That sad day in November 1978 it was cold. One evening the roommate came to me and said we were evicted. I had given him all my money I was three months pregnant. I also had a warrant for my arrest on a Minor in possession which I had failed to show up for court because I was in a hospital after having a nervous break down when I was 17 years old.. My Dark history that I was trying to forget. You see I took ONE DRINK of a beer..
I don't even like the taste of Beer. My mouth was dry and the driver said to me HOlD this, for you can't get into trouble you are under age.. Oh if I only knew then what I know Now?
Due to the idiots that do paperwork at the courts? I was attacked by this man who took my money. I was bruised on my right forearm Three fingerprints when he shoved me to the ground
when I asked for my money back. So I called E.P.D. boy that was the biggest mistake I had made in my life.. They refused to listen to My pleas to arrest the man who assaulted me. It is all on record.. lost in the archives of the labyrinth's Web of DECEIT AND LIARS.. of this fair city.
"WHEN YOU CHOOSE TO DECEIVE ? WHAT WEBS YOU WEAVE" Ole day I knew I would have JUSTICE. Truth about the story of the Star that never became a star.. because some well paid city employee for got to File the paperwork of an attorney in Salem.. right about the time the BRUNO killings happened ? Yipes I was thrown into a car and hauled away because of a TYPO?? get real people.. 40 years later I want my Christmas Present back! It is My OVATION
the last Christmas present from My father before he died of a stroke.. I want my life back.
They were rude and mean, I did not know why I was going to jail. I went to my knees pregnant and the willful intent of the E.P.D. was to hurt me, I had never been treated this way. They are responsible for the OVATION<> THIEVES.. Jerks .. To this I know I was thrown into the BROKEN SYSTEM.
It was cold There was a hole in the window I was freezing and cold, I had insisted on being transfered to Maximum holding for the MINOR IN POSSESSION.. Three days I spent in jail for a charge that an attorney in Salem on Center street had told me that he had taken care of this years before ( HE LIED) (THEY STOLE MY CHRISTMAS PRESENT FROM MY FATHER)
MY Music died inside of me. The ripped my soul to shreds.. I was in agony, I was in pain.
I could not believe I was being treated as a common criminal. My 1000.dollar guitar? Why the cops refused to take my personal possessions with me to jail is beyond belief? Not really they seems to have gotten away with ripping people off a lot as of late. The tazer incident of May 30th
2008? A peaceful protest ? OUR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO BE HEARD?
TO be told to grow up my a deputy sheriff when I was having an asthma attack?
A rose by any other name is still a rose? Not really when the people who are to serve and protect
are standing laughing at you when you have no toilet paper? Yes our fair honest lovely city>
So the rest of my battle of life in Oregon was to have my beautiful little girl. Apparently that did not happen.. after jail I left town.. the roommates barfed in a bag and set it on my relatives porch. I was assaulted.. I have proof.. SO what you are nothing rings the words of the E.P.D. you are nothing you are no body in this world.. So remember when you try and be stupid and take a beer from the driver of a 1957 Chevy? Make sure the attorney is not an idiot, and make sure that the municipality has people who really know how to do data entry? DUE TO THE SCREW UPS IN THIS TOWN>> MY LIFE WAS TAKEN FROM ME.. On top of my guitar..
My future in music? Not for me I was from the other side of the tracks? I played at the talent show "FOR WHAT IT IS WORTH" BOB DYLAN WROTE THIS SONG..
Of course he too could have been in the audience.. I met him a few years later and tied his shoelace.. funny how that works.. a stripper yes.. I danced to loose weight.. a battle for the stars?
A battle for my life I started 40 long years ago.. You don't have to be a star in my show.. just bear with me.. As I said a social worker in Salem decided to ramp on me, I had my daughter
I had the whole state of Oregon against me. they threatened to close my foster mom's home down.. they threatened to take my baby as me being an unfit mother. they attacked me at every chance they got. To date a friend Doctor ACHAR helped me to give my baby up for adoption.
closed.. i never knew if she was dead or alive for 22 long years I cried each April.. i cried I died in my soul my life was destroyed because of a typo, and a willingness to not follow through on paperwork. They neglected to realize that one day a person like myself may STAND UP FOR TRUTH IN THE MUSIC OF LIFE>> TO STATE MY CASE BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT OF THE ATROCITIES OF MANS DECEITFUL NATURE.. Truth? Why did I lose my baby?
I was wrongfully accused.Of battering my child's nose ( THE BIRTH CANAL BRUISED HER IN BIRTH) and in Romeo and Juliet as days of the future past>> We all are PUNISHED For allowing THESE SINS. For life my life was taken from me at SEVENTEEN. As Fleet wood MAC
my artist friends said "She was just 17" and the teenage wasteland continues. The Saga of my life
I have been forced to endure for the Pawn that I was in a game of How to destroy a Star.
she came from the wrong side of the tracks and she can't play with us anymore, we will beat her to the ground, we will step on here with all our mightiness of money greed and power..
So ironic so simple to understand.. The LAW? what a joke.. hangman STIX? The long arm of the law? A freind of mine said be quiet I will have my turn for Justice.. All I want is my guitar back. My daughter came back at age 23 years old.. she couldn't find me on the net //My age had been changed to promote the "LIE" to promote the Deceit in this town? We are all punished: to allow this to happen to a MUSIC WOMAN (from 3rd grade wanted to be a shining star}, I have paid my dues.. I have read the writing on the wall.. I have my wings do you? can you stand and follow me
to SAVE OUR CITY? My circle of friends? Will the CIRCLE BE UNBROKEN? Sing with me the song of Justice. sing with me the song of the downtrodden, sing to me.. SING with me, fight the good fight of truth.. for someday 40 years later someone may ask for the guitar that was stolen from me to be returned?
The talent scout from my past..
PINKNEY was his name.. may he rest in Peace, and thank you for believing in me I wish I could have gone with you to be the singer I always wanted to be. but my town prevented me from being a star. they took my voice:my song; my Love: My first born daughter: they took my life because of a typo and a disregard for Human rights and Justice.. because THEY COULD for the sick pleasure of the destruction of a teenagers DREAM.. I had a DREAM someone said.
June 2, 2007: Nevada Governor Jim Gibbons has handed a major victory to
"truth in music" proponents by signing into law a bill that prohibits oldies
acts from performing as the original group unless they contain at least one
original member. While that doesn't exactly remove all wiggle room, it does
strike a blow for the cause in a state where Las Vegas casinos make up a
huge share of the oldies tour market. Sonny Turner of the Platters was on
hand to witness the signing, as was Maxine Porter, manager for the Drifters'
Bill Pinkney. Porter stated that the movement's goal was to have 20 states
with such legislation by the end of the year, meaning eight more bills would
be passed in that time.
NOTE: When I worked with GARY BOCHENSKI // Judy Bochenski's Brother My first boyfriend? At 14 years old? He worked in the mail room in Salem I helped sort the massive paperwork in the STATE CAPITOL ALL VOLUNTEER WORK after Judy's return from China when Nixion had water gate.. and opened up the trade route to China.. GARY has passed on May he rest in peace knowing I took the torch of truth to tell the world about our young love //
Yes it was wrong for a 22 yr old to have a relationship with me.m Due to my sexual abuse at a young age very young I was attacked by a man in Paradise California at 5 years old. So I was active sexually at a very young age. Besides an older man who had YALE in his resume' was o.k. in my book.. Judy is still a home town Hero She was here in the beginning and yes I still smoke those Strawberry cigars.. I still watch this town fall to pieces because no one has gathered all the souls too reunite for Truth and Justice.. tell your story.. and hold fast "In the wink of an eye'
Things will change for the better.. its time to stand U+Knighted against Evil. and the deception of life's lessons learned at such a cost of my life.. I give thanks to all my friends to stand up. And to hold close your friends from your childhood. BoB DYLAN Is My home town HERO! and so Is ROBIN Williams... tis the season for justice. and revenge not mine.. to all who have suffered. to all who have been in the Saga of my life.. I sing the Blues.. and the Blues shall set you free..ZZ

Sunday, October 26, 2008

60 minutes to Love and Light and Darkness Darkness YoungBloods

Article offers explanations as to why ABC, NBC, CBS gave only 3 minutes
prime time coverage to Chechnya in 2006, when an estimated 160,000 have died
or gone missing since the conflict started between Chechnya and Russia.
Chechnya topped the list of the ten most under-reported stories of 2005
compiled by Doctors Without Bor
f anyone thinks 160000 confirmed killed doesn't sound like too much,
consider that the entire population of Chechnya is 1.1 million.

The worlds attention is just completely focussed on Iraq, giving the
Russians completely free hands. They're dealing with Chechnya exactly like
they dealt with Germany at the end of WWII: incredible brutality, e.g.
artillery strikes against residential areas in retaliation for killed
Russian soldiers, and rapes and murders are not only commonplace and
committed with complete impunity, but actually policy:

It's not that the stunning brutality of the Russians in Chechnya is unknown
to the west, it just doesn't get much coverage in western media (and, of
course, none at all in Russian media).
WHAT IS GOING ON? WHY ARE WE FORGETTING ? Because the news forgets to tell
the American people the truth about it all.. Love will find a way to calm
the waters sooner than soon my friends TBA..No more tears we are done crying
DAYBREAK WAS MY BROTHERS BAND "1969"revisited Rip Reynolds known as Rip Van winkle
was my[ junior high school Bus driver] Glass blower C.E.O. patented NEW FUSION!!! methodology to create and Market his product for a new way to do Stained glass..
A new way of GLASS blowing "RIP" my forever friend Rocks in "DIAMOND BACK BAND".
PORTLAND OREGON ROSES ON PARADE..// Free Souls are doing a good job.. IN getting TOYS for all the low income children who are homeless.. OUR COLLECTIVE VOICE IS SHINING! Marge Williamson "FOOD FOR LANE COUNTY" Volunteer advocate Very Lovely lady works day and night too make our collective voice work all over the world!
In Cress well promoting Literacy at the (Library) Creating MAGIC!! with grants and support from the federal government to promote wellbeing of people in need to learn the English language. Many thanks to all the volunteers that make our world a better place. Marge Williamson is a Bright Soul that can move mountains her husband ;Robert Williamson an "Eye" doctor for many years on the Eugene Mall before the mall was built? "Cindy Wooten"Original owner and operator of "ODYSSEY" Coffee shop ;when I wrote poetry and sang with my guitar over my shoulder and always a Skip and a jump in my step; from Roosevelt Junior High School
I went to the coffee shop everyday (after school) to learn what was going on with all the good people of Eugene and to hang out with all the "MUSIC MEN" of our fair city. TOMMY SMITH and GREG, played at the fund raiser for "LOOKING GLASS" that I coordinated as event organizer// to get funding for the homeless shelter for runaways in 1972.// SUNNY KING may he rest in peace died of cancer early 1970's BLUES ARTIST// others that have made a great difference in this town:
Robert and Marge Williamson are the best of the best in our city. And still unwavering volunteer efforts to make Oregon a trend setter in becoming the best place to live and breath in the Emerald valley and to make dreams of the
Also a thank you goes out to "James Fox' (U.of O. professor)and Mia Fox [Japanese teacher] who lost her son *** {MANI SHIMADA} 2003 to meningitis, a fretful day in 2003 in September right after school had started to bring the new year, Our 'collective' Son died; and to this we remember with creation of a scholarship geared for the "High risk Children" to obtain a High School education** "QUAKERS ALTERNATIVE HIGH SCHOOL" many thanks too all the ELDERS of the Church that made this dream happen to help all children that feel like 'MISFITS' in the public school system. All children!!! No matter what need, to be wanted and loved to this; I bow humbly to the great efforts on the church of the 'Quakers' At "WELLSPRINGS" ALTERNATIVE SCHOOL they saved my son's life due to the discrimination that happened in 4J school district, I transfered him to a small school house for kids that needed extra attention and to help him to navigate the system to get him the needed training in life skills, to that I am grateful to all who have dreamed the dream of making a difference in our Emerald Valley Thanks goes out to Dennis Horner and all the Elders and founders of the Friends Church.


The wicked have drawn their swords
And strung their bows
To bring low the poor and the needy
And to slaughter honest people
Their swords shall pierce their own hearts
And their bows shall be broken.
--Psalms 31:14, 15


Steve Watson
Tuesday, July 29, 2008

You couldn’t make it up if you tried. Police in Ozark, Missouri repeatedly tased a critically injured sixteen year old boy after he “refused to comply with the officers”.

The cops were called to investigate reports of a boy walking along a busy overpass, but when they got there they found young Mace Hutchinson had fallen 30 ft to the ground below, breaking his back and and foot in the process.

When he did not co-operate with the cops they pulled out their stun guns and fired them into his body, shocking him up to nineteen times with 50,000 volts.

According to the boy’s father, the actions of the police caused an elevated white blood cell count leading Mace to develop a fever that delayed vital surgery by two days.

Ozark Police Capt. Thomas Rousset tried to condone the use of the taser in comments to the media:

“He refused to comply with the officers and so the officers had to deploy their Tasers in order to subdue him. He is making incoherent statements; he’s also making statements such as, ‘Shoot cops, kill cops,’ things like that. So there was cause for concern to the officers.”

Watch a local report from [2] KY3 News:

The idea that a boy with a broken back would need to be “subdued” by a team of cops is not patently ludicrous but also smacks of a desperate attempt to cover up the true events in this case.

This is a perfect example of how it has become the norm for cops to react with extreme physical force towards anyone who acts out of the ordinary in any way whatsoever.

We have previously carried reports of police tasing an [3] already restrained disabled man, a 6-year-old boy who was [4] wielding a piece of glass and a [5] woman having diabetic seizure to name but a few, but this case trumps them all.

This behaviour is not limited to cops in the U.S. either, last November a man who [6] slipped into a diabetic coma on the top deck of a bus in Leeds, England described how he was used for electric stun gun “target practice” after he “failed to respond to instructions” and police “mistook him for a suicide bomber”.

Tasers are supposed to be the last response before lethal action, yet police now use the taser as if it is a pair of handcuffs or pepper spray. The latest figures show that over 300 people died in one year in admitted cases in the US alone from being tased.

[7] Prominent heart doctors have declared that there is no doubt that Tasers can cause heart problems and even induce sudden and lethal cardiac arrest.

The UN’s Committee Against Torture issued a [8] statement on the TaserX26, in November of last year which read: “The use of TaserX26 weapons, provoking extreme pain, constituted a form of torture, and that in certain cases it could also cause death, as shown by several reliable studies and by certain cases that had happened after practical use.”

Despite these facts, we see [9] stories every week of old women, children and disabled people being shot with tasers. The weapons are even being used in schools.

The police are now trained that “pain compliance,” a euphemism for torture, is acceptable in apprehending anyone even if that person poses no physical danger.

The heart of the issue is that this was another act of wanton police brutality and torture by means of tasing.


AP Photo/J. Walter Thompson

On this date in:
1797 The U.S. Navy frigate Constitution, also known as Old
Ironsides, was launched in Boston Harbor.
1805 A British fleet commanded by Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a
French and Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar; Nelson was killed in
the battle.
1917 American soldiers first saw action in World War I on the
front lines in France.

AP Photo

1967 Tens of thousands of Vietnam War protesters marched in
Washington, D.C.
1971 President Richard M. Nixon nominated Lewis F. Powell and
William H. Rehnquist to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1975 Boston Red Sox catcher Carlton Fisk hit a ball that struck
the left field foul pole in Boston's Fenway Park for a home run, giving the
Red Sox a 7-6 victory in 12 innings over the Cincinnati Reds in Game 6 of
the World Series.

AP Photo/Harry Cabluck

1988 Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos and his wife,
Imelda, were indicted in New York on charges of fraud and racketeering.
2001 Washington postal worker Thomas L. Morris Jr. died of
inhaled anthrax.
2002 A car packed with explosives blew up next to a bus in
northern Israel during rush hour; 14 people were killed in addition to two
suicide attackers.
2003 Invoking a hastily-passed law, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush
ordered a feeding tube reinserted into Terry Schiavo, a brain-damaged woman
at the center of a bitter right-to-die battle.
2003 The U.N. General Assembly overwhelmingly approved a
resolution demanding that Israel tear down a barrier jutting into the West
Highlights of This Day in History
Today's Birthdays:
Baltimore Ravens running back Willis McGahee turns 27
years old today.

AP Photo/Nick Wass

Name Profession Age
Joyce Randolph Actress ("The Honeymooners") 83
Whitey Ford Baseball Hall of Famer 80
Manfred Mann Rock musician 68
Steve Cropper Rock musician (Booker T. & the MG's) 67
Elvin Bishop Singer 66
Judy Sheindlin TV personality ("Judge Judy") 66
Everett McGill Actor 63
Lee Loughnane Rock musician (Chicago) 62
Benjamin Netanyahu Former Israeli prime minister 59
Charlotte Caffey Rock musician (The Go Go's) 55
Carrie Fisher Actress, author 52
Julian Cope Rock singer 51
Steve Lukather Rock musician (Toto) 51
Ken Watanabe Actor ("Letters from Iwo Jima") 49
Che Colovita Lemon Rock musician 38
Nick Oliveri Rock musician 37
Charlie Lowell Rock musician (Jars of Clay) 35
Jeremy Miller Actor ("Growing Pains") 32
Will Estes Actor ("American Dreams") 30
Matt Dallas Actor ("Kyle XY") 26
TV personality Kim Kardashian turns 28 years old today.

AP Photo/Peter Kramer


As Chief of the Rosicrucians and the first Grand Master of modern
Freemasonry, Bacon sent his followers to the new world. A 1910 Newfoundland
stamp with his image upon it reads, "Lord Bacon: the Guiding Spirit in [the]
Colonization Scheme". Because of his influence, Francis Bacon is considered
by some to be "the real and true founder of America". For centuries,
controversy has surrounded this figure who is said to be the illegitimate
son of Queen Elizabeth I, and secret author of the Shakespeare plays; the
man whom Thomas Jefferson considered one of the three most influential men
in history.

Is it possible that Bacon's vision guides America today?

Where The DaVinci Code meets National Treasure: Learn the incredible secrets
of the esoteric traditions, hidden within the manifold layers of signs and
symbols in our nation's infrastructure. Find out why some believe that from
ancient times America has been chosen to fulfill a secret destiny.

Find your roots of FAMILY go back to 1800's


Yale salutes St. Petersburg in 2003

This October, Yale University is joining the city of St. Petersburg in the
celebration of its 300th anniversary and its remarkable literary, artistic,
and musical heritage with a three-day international conference, exhibitions
at the Beinecke and Sterling Memorial Libraries, and a concert by the Yale
Russian Chorus.

The conference, entitled St. Petersburg: 300 Years, will take place on
October 23-25, 2003. Scholars from around the world will convene in sessions
devoted to the visual arts in the time of Peter the Great and after, to St.
Petersburg as the capital of Russia (which it was between 1712 and 1918), to
St. Petersburg as a theme in Russian literature, and to the flowering of
culture in the city. Participants will include speakers from the State
Hermitage Museum and the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St.
Petersburg, from the All-Russian State Library for Foreign Literature in
Moscow, the Moscow State University, as well as several European and
American universities. Other institutions represented at the symposium will
include the State Museum-Park Tsarskoye Selo, and the National Library of
Russia. The Yale Russian Chorus concert, which marks the group's 50th
anniversary, will take place on Saturday, October 25, at Yale's Woolsey

In conjunction with the St. Petersburg celebration, Tatjana Lorkovic,
curator of Yale's Slavic and East European Collections, and Fred Musto,
curator of the Map Collection, will present an exhibition drawn from Yale's
rich collection of maps, coins, and medals at Sterling Memorial Library. At
the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Vincent Giroud, curator of
modern books and manuscripts, will mount an exhibition of books,
manuscripts, prints, and photographs documenting the role of St. Petersburg
as a cultural, artistic, and literary center from its founding through the
Second World War.

While the theme of the Beinecke exhibition, mirroring the strength of the
library's collections, will be St. Petersburg seen through the eyes of
non-Russian travelers, the show will also include Russian artifacts of
extraordinary interest. The library's renowned Romanov albums, for instance,
will be on display, as will the recently acquired manuscript of Anna
Akhmatova's Poema bez geroja (Poem Without a Hero), a work of the writer's
later years describing the Stalinist era. Though her poetry was suppressed
by the Soviet government, Akhmatova faithfully remained Petersburg's
unwavering voice. The Beinecke Library will publish a fully illustrated
catalog of its exhibition, entitled St. Petersburg: Portrait of a Great
City. The Beinecke exhibition will continue through December 2003.

Sponsors of Yale's St. Petersburg celebration are the Beinecke Rare Book &
Manuscript Library, Sterling Memorial Library, and the Yale departments of
History and of Slavic Languages & Literatures. The celebration of St.
Petersburg at Yale is especially appropriate because of the presence at the
Beinecke Library of a large collection of travel books about Russia
assembled and donated to the library by Valerian and Laura K. ("Polly")

Construction of St. Petersburg, now the second largest city in Russia, began
under Peter the Great in 1703. Renamed Petrograd in 1914, it became
Leningrad upon the death of Lenin in 1924. In 1991, Leningrad became St.
Petersburg again. A center of culture and education, the city is home to the
Hermitage and the Russian Museum, the Winter Palace, the Alexander Nevsky
monastery, the Academy of Sciences, and several prominent libraries and
universities. St. Petersburg, designed by Peter the Great to be his window
onto Europe, lies in northwest Russia on the Gulf of Finland at the mouth of
the Neva River. This "Northern Venice," combining its Russian heritage with
a distinctly European outlook, is one of the great cities of Europe.

A passage I found on the net as follows:
It took me some time to find about your surname, but now I'm quite sure: Your
surname is of Serbian origin, and the genuine spelling is Zrkic. This is the
only spelling which matches all pronunciations like those you mentioned.

Zrkics are obviously a very small family, and they seem to have suffered
during the World War 2. In archives of Jasenovac (huge concentration camp
where Croatian regime killed 500,000 Serbs during the WW2) I found several
Zrkics who died there, and this is unfortunately the only trace of your
family which I found on the Internet.
Zrkic family seems to originate from small town Sid, in Serbia, on Croatian
border - the only living Zrkic I could find in Serbia lives there! His name
is Milorad Zrkic

Memoirs of SOE agents have always been rare - so many were either
killed in action or executed - and today they are almost unheard of. But
Sydney Hudson's story, which he has waited nearly sixty years to tell, is
just about as dramatic and thrilling as any to have ever appeared. After
volunteering for guerrilla operations should the Germans occupy Britain, he
transferred to SOE. He spent most of the Second World War in France,
remarkably surviving 15 months captivity and interrogation before making a
daring and thrilling escape through the Pyrenees into Spain. Shortly
thereafter, he was back in France, again by parachute, to organize
resistance operations until the arrival of the US 3rd Army. More secret
missions followed behind enemy lines with a female agent. Then, he
volunteered for further SOE work in the Far East where he served in India
and Thailand. He was twice decorated with the Distinguished Service Order
for his efforts and also awarded the Croix de Guerre. It is easy for the
reader of this book to see why. Undercover Operator is a fascinating mix of
true drama, rich excitement and refreshing good-humor. It is no exaggeration
to say that it makes a significant contribution to the history of SOE.


Friday, October 24, 2008


We will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends."
Quoted by RFK.. 1968

It is from numberless diverse acts of courage and belief that human history is shaped. Each time a man stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope."

Thursday, October 23, 2008

The Walls of the fortress come tumbling down ZZ

The wicked have drawn their swords
And strung their bows
To bring low the poor and the needy
And to slaughter honest people
Their swords shall pierce their own hearts
And their bows shall be broken.
--Psalms 31:14, 15
KRASNODAR, Russia -- Thousands of Muslims from a small
ethnic group known as the Meskhetian Turks are fleeing
this Black Sea region for the United States. The
exodus is caused by what human rights groups call a
campaign of persecution sanctioned by local
authorities and spearheaded by the Cossacks, a Russian
militia that fought for the czars and is being

In the past year, just more than 5,000 Meskhetian
Turks have resettled in the United States as refugees,
and 4,400 have approval to immigrate, according to the
U.S. Embassy in Moscow. Another 7,000 have filed
applications that U.S. officials are reviewing.

"I call it soft ethnic cleansing," said Alexander
Ossipov, an analyst at the Institute for Humanities
and Political Studies in Moscow. "The local
authorities decided which ethnic groups were desirable
and which were not. It's government based on a racist

The United States has criticized actions of the
Krasnodar authorities in State Department human rights
reports and at meetings of the 55-country Organization
for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Russian officials in the south say the Meskhetian
Turks are foreigners who have no right to remain in
Russia. They play down reports of Cossack violence.

In interviews, leaders of the Meskhetian community
expressed dismay that the Russian government has not
curbed the actions of the local authorities and has
said it intends to formalize the role of the Cossacks
as an auxiliary force in law enforcement nationwide.

President Vladimir Putin has proposed a law that would
allow Cossacks to serve in special units in the
military, assist the police and work in border
control, counterterrorism and counter-drug operations.
Political analysts predict the legislation will pass
in the next few months.


{Greek Nómikse sautw^j toûs goneîs è?inai Ðeoús}

THE religious feeling may be traced to the natural veneration of the child
for the parent, joined to an innate belief in the immortality of the soul.
What we know of the primitive religion of Aryans and Polynesians points to
this source. They both venerated the spirits of deceased ancestors,
believing that these spirits took an interest in their living descendants:
moreover, they feared them, and were careful to observe the precepts handed
down by tradition, as having been delivered by them while alive.

The souls of men deified by death were by the Latins called "Lares" or
"Mânes," by the Greeks "Demons" or "Heroes." Their tombs were the temples of
these divinities, and bore the inscription "Dis manibus," "{Greek Ðeoìs
xðóniois};" and before the tomb was an altar for sacrifice. The term used by
the Greeks and Romans to signify the worship of the dead is significant. The
former used the word

{p. 2}

"{Greek patriáksein}" the latter "parentare," showing that the prayers were
addressed to forefathers. "I prevail over my enemies," says the Brahmin, "by
the incantations which my ancestors and my father have handed down to

Similar to this was the common belief of the Maori of Polynesia, and still
exists. A Maori of New Zealand writes thus: "The origin of knowledge of our
native customs was from Tiki (the progenitor of the human race). Tiki taught
laws to regulate work, slaying, man-eating: from him men first learnt to
observe laws for this thing, and for that thing, the rites to be used for
the dead, the invocation for the new-born child, for battle in the field,
for the assault of fortified places, and other invocations very numerous.
Tiki was the first instructor, and from him descended his instructions to
our forefathers, and have abided to the present time. For this reason they
have power. Thus says the song:--

E tama, tapu-nui, tapu-whakaharahara,
He mauri wehewehe na o tupuna,
Na Tiki, na Rangi, na Papa.

O child, very sacred--very, very sacred,
Shrine set apart by your ancestors,
By Tiki, by Rangi, by Papa.

The researches of philologists tend to show that all known languages are
derived from one original parent source. The parent language from which the
Aryan and Polynesian languages are derived must have been spoken at a very
remote time; for no two forms of

[1. La Cité Antique par De Coulange.]
language are now more diverse than these two are. In the Polynesian there is
but the slightest trace of inflexion of words which is a general character
of Aryan languages. The Polynesian language seems to have retained a very
primitive form, remaining fixed and stationary; and this is confirmed by the
fact that the forms of Polynesian language, whether spoken in the Sandwich
Islands or in New Zealand, though their remoteness from each other indicates
a very early separation, differ to so small a degree that they may be
regarded as only different dialects of the same language. The Maori language
is essentially conservative, containing no principle in its structure
facilitating change. The component parts or roots of words are always

When we consider the great remoteness of time at which it is possible that a
connection between Aryans and Polynesians could have existed, we are carried
back to the contemplation of a very primitive condition of the human race.
In the Polynesian family we can still discover traces of this primitive
condition. We can also observe a similarity between the more ancient form of
religious belief and mythological tradition of the Aryans and that still
existing among Polynesians; for which reason we think it allowable to apply
to the interpretation of old Aryan myths the principle we discover to guide
us as to the signification of Polynesian Mythology.

It was a favourite opinion with Christian apologists, Eusebius and others,
that the Pagan deities represented deified men. Others consider them to

{p. 4}

the powers of external nature personified. For others they are, in many
cases, impersonations of human passions and propensities reflected back from
the mind of man. A fourth mode of interpretation would treat them as copies
distorted and depraved of a primitive system of religion given by God to

The writer does not give any opinion as to which of these theories he would
give a preference. If, however, we look at the mythology of Greek and Latin
Aryans from the Maori point of view the explanation of their myths is

This mythology personified and deified the Powers of Nature, and represented
them as the ancestors of all mankind; so these personified Powers of Nature
were worshiped as deified ancestors. There is no authority for any other
supposition. With regard to the two latter theories above referred to it may
be remarked that fiction is always liable to be interpreted in a manner
conformable to the ideas prevailing at any particular time, so that there
would be a natural tendency, in modern times, to apply meanings never
originally thought of to the interpretation of mythology. Man in early days,
ignorant of the causes of natural phenomena, yet having a mind curious to
inquire and trace observed effects to some cause, formulated his conceptions
on imaginary grounds, which, although now manifestly false and absurd, yet
were probably sufficiently credible in the infancy of knowledge.

There is a notable mental condition of the Polynesian

[1. Juventus mundi, p. 203.]

to which we desire to direct attention. The Maori has a very limited notion
of the abstract. All his ideas take naturally a concrete form. This
ineptitude to conceive any abstract notions was, it is believed, the early
mental condition of man. Hence the Powers of Nature were regarded by him as
concrete objects, and were consequently designated as persons. And this
opinion is confirmed by the fact that the researches of comparative
philologists give proof that all words are, in their origin or roots,
expressive of visible and sensuous phenomena,[1] and consequently that all
abstract words are derivable from such roots. The absence, too, of all
abstract and metaphysical ideas from Homer has been noticed by Mr Gladstone
as very remarkable.

I have seen it stated in print that the New Zealander has no sentiment of
gratitude; in proof of which it was mentioned that he has no word in his
language to express gratitude. This is true; but the reason is that
gratitude is an abstract word, and that Maori is deficient in abstract
terms. It is an error to infer that he is ignorant of the sentiment of
gratitude, or that he is unable to express that sentiment in appropriate
arid intelligible words.

The Aryans do not appear to have had any tradition of a Creation. They seem
to have conceived of the Powers of Nature very much in the same way as the

Max Müller, "Science of Language." Farrar, "Chapters on Language," p.
Maori did,--namely, that the mysterious power of Generation was the
operative cause of all things.

Hesiod in his Theogony relates that the first parent of all was Chaos.

From Chaos sprung Gaia (=Earth), Tartarus, Eros (=Love), Erebus, a dark son,
Night, a dark daughter, and lastly, Day.
--Psalms 31:14, 15

Egypt and dark ages of the past history lesson

IN the United States freed their slaves and sent them to Liberia.
Hundreds were recaptured from slave vessels, and several
companies of free Negroes joined the colony. The colonization
society had branches in many states and was untiring in its
effort to support the colony. The Colonization Society of
Maryland was independent of the National Colonization
Society because it \vas found that thereby it would receive
more support from the state legislature. The colony at Cape
Palmas was founded and controlled by 'the Maryland Coloniza-
tion Society, but finally became part of the Liberian Republic.

The natives showed themselves willing to be taught.
Writing of them in 3827 Lot Gary said: " The heathen in our
vicinity are very anxious for the means of light. They will
buy it, beg it, and sooner than miss it, they will steal it. In
renewing our school establishment up to Cape Mount, I had
upwards of forty natives carry out baggage, and though they
had every opportunity to commit depredations nothing was lost
except fifteen spelling books."

When it was plainly to be seen that Liberia as a colony
could not defend itself steps were taken to form it into an
independent government, and on July 2C>, 1847, the colony
became the Free and Independent Republic of Liberia. Article
I, Section 1 of the constitution reads as follows: All men are
born equally free and independent, and have certain natural
inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the rights of
enjoying and defending life and liberty, of at quiring, possess-
ing and protecting property, and of pursuing and obtaining
safety and happiness.

The republic was first recognized by Great Britain, next
by France and then by the other powers. The chief officials
are the President, Vice President, a Senate and House of
Representatives, a Cabinet and a Supreme Court. The Presi-
dent must be thirty-five years of age and own real estate;
electors must be of Negro blood and be owners of land ; na-
tives may vote but usually do not except in larger towns.

Governor Joseph Jenkins Roberts became the first President

of the Liberian Republic and served from 1848 to 1856. Suc-
ceeding Presidents were Hon. Stephen A. Benson, 185li-(il;
Daniel Warner, 18(54-08 ; James S. Payne, 18ti8-70; Edward
J. Roye, 1870-72; James Jenkins Roberts, 1872-10; James
Spriggs Payne, 187G-78; Anthony W. Gardner, 1878-84;
Hiliary R. W. Johnson, 1884-1891; Joseph J. Cheeseman,
1892-98; William D. Coleman, 1898-1900; Garretson W. Gib-
son, 1900-04; Arthur Barclay, 1904-12.

On January J, 1912, Hon. Daniel Edward Howard was
inaugurated President of the republic. " It was the first inau-
guration ever attended by native chiefs."

Liberia is about the size of the State of .New York, and the
total population is between fifteen and twenty-one hundred
thousand, about twelve thousand of whom are Americo-
Liberians. The principal tribes represented are the Mandingo.
the Kisi, the Gola, the Kru and allies. The coast region is
divided into three counties Basa, Sino, and Maryland.

There is a government college, Methodist college and a
Protestant Episcopal high school ; Dr. Blyden was at one time
president of Liberia College. Dr. Alexandet Crummell once
had charge of the Episcopal mission in that country.

Francis Burns was the first colored missionary bishop of the
Methodist Episcopal Church to West Africa, serving from
1S."s to 1S<;:>. In 18;> I he went to Liberia and did splendid
work as evangelist and teacher. Upon his election to the
bishopric, he came to this country to be ordained and returned
to Africa. In a few years his health failed and in 18(53 he died.
John Wright Roberts was ordained a few years afterward
and succeeded Bishop Burns. " Roberts vigorously carried
forward the work so wisely begun by his predecessor, and it
is said that at the time of his death, in 1875, the Methodist
Episcopal Church in Africa numbered more than two hundred
thousand souls." " The Right Reverend S. D. Ferguson, the
present Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Liberia, is a native
of South Carolina. Bishop Ferguson has spent almost his
entire life in Africa. Although now advanced in age, he is
extremely active and has a firm grip on his work. He has
trained up a fine body of native clergymen."

In Liberia there is an organized militia, a volunteer force
and a police force. Every male citizen from sixteen years old
to fifty, capable of bearing arms, is liable to serve. The
national flag bears a single star and stripes.

The hinterland is undeveloped so that the resources of the
country are not exactly known, but gold, diamonds, copper,
lead, zinc have been found. There are no railways and oxcarts
are the vehicles commonly used ; a motor road has recently
been constructed, about twenty miles in length. Seven lines
of steamers regularly visit Monrovia British, German,
French, Spanish.

The following colored Americans have served as United
States Ministers to Liberia : Hon. J. Milton Turner, John H.
Smyth, Henry Highland Garnet, O. W. L. Smith, Ernest
Lyon, W. D. Crum. Hon. James Robert Spurgeon, a graduate
of Yale, was at one time secretary of legation. He was com-
mended for excellent service. In 1902, Hon. George W. Ellis,
of Kansas University, succeeded Mr. Spurgeon. Mr. Ellis
served eight and one half years, and as he is an authority upon
questions of economics and sociology, he was able to render
important service to the Liberian government.

Of Liberia, Mr. Ellis says: "Liberia offers to the United
States an opening to the most extensive, the most desirable and
the best paying commerce of all the world. Agricultural pos-
sibilities of the republic are tremendous, on account of the
fertility of the soil. Liberia also affords access to a hundred
million Sudanese natives, the highest type of the Negro race,
and cultured in many arts." "The Sudanese of northern Africa
have a civilization dating back for centuries, and similar in its
origin to that which made Morocco the metropolis of Negro
culture years ago."

Besides the multitude of valuable articles to be found in
Liberia proper and the Hinterland, " not least are the hides of
many animals of the leopard, the beautiful spotted bushcat,
of many varieties of deer, of the monkey, the alligator and the
boa-constrictor. Alf these beasts inhabit the interior. The
elephant is to be found within two or three days' walk of Cape
Mount. Domestic cattle are also numerous on the Mandingan
plains and among some of the coast tribes. These cattle are
descended from ancient stock, introduced into Africa centuries
ago from Egypt and the Mediterranean."

The government of Liberia has not had a smooth path, for,
envious of the great natural wealth which the country contains,
some of the European powers have artfully tried to undermine
the republic. In 1910 a commission, appointed by President of
U. S., visited Liberia to look into the condition of the country,
as the Liberians had urgently requested America to come to
their aid. The commission consisted of Messrs. Roland P.
Folkner, George Sale and Emmett J. Scott : the latter has been
for many years, secretary to [Dr. Booker T. Washington.] The
commission reported favorably and the United States has
established a sort of financial protectorate over the country and
has placed American officials in charge of Liberian customs.

Writing of Liberia in 1832 a visitor says : " All my expecta-
tions in regard to the health, harmony, order, contentment,
industry and general prosperity of the settlers were more than
realized. I saw no intemperance nor did I hear a profane
word. I know of no place where the Sabbath appears to be
more respected than in Monrovia; no man, not even a native,
could be hired " for love or money " to work on the Sabbath
day. Most of the settlers appear to be rapidly acquiringprop-
erty and I have no doubt that they are doing better for them-
serves and their children than they could do in any other part
of the world."

"Previous to the settlement of Liberia the mouths of the
rivers St. Paul, Mesurado and St. John were the greatest marts
for slaves on the windward coast. Thousands came down
those streams each year and were sold away. Now those
rivers are used by the husbandmen to bring their produce to
Monrovia, Grand P>assa and Etina, and the native paddles
Eliis canoe in safety under the protection of the colonies founded
by the Colonization Society." Funny how that works My family?

A visitor to Liberia in 1910 writes: "The people of Mon-
rovia look, act and dress very like the better class of Negroes
of Atlanta or Louisville. All the Americo-Liberians (and
many civilized natives) are neatly but not flashily clothed, and
most of the aborigines put on an extra cloth when they come
to town. I doubt if there be anywhere in the United States a
Negro community of the size of Monrovia where there is so
little boistcrousness or profanity. Swearing is a lost art and 1
saw but one case of drunkenness during my first month in

" The Liberian Sabbath suggests the quiet of a New England
.city a quiet that is broken only by the sound of church
organs and congregational singing. The churches are well
attended and the services are conducted with due regard to
dignity and reverence." So you see that for at least eighty
years the Liberians have conducted themselves with the same
dignity and have had no need to be ashamed of their country.

A writer describes the inaugural ceremonies of President
Howard, held January 1, 1912. as very imposing. " It was the
first inauguration ever attended by native chiefs, headmen and
retainers, and their presence was significant. They talked
nothing but peace and prosperity, and promised to do all in
their power to make the new administration a highly successful
one. Nearly two thousand natives from the interior listened to
President Howard advocate that they be given equal rights,
and when on the second day President Howard and Vice
President Harmon donned attire similar to that worn by the
native chiefs, the incident occasioned much good feeling."

Following is the official family of the new administration :
President, Daniel Edward Howard; Vice President, Samuel
George Harmon; Secretary of State, CD. B. King; Secretary
of Treasury, Thomas W. Haynes ; Secretary of War and Navy,
Wilmot E. Dennis; Postmaster General, Col. Isaac Moort;
Secretary of Interior, J. J. Morris ; Attorney General, Samuel


A. Ross; Secretary of Education, B. W. Payne; Executive
Secretary to the President, Walter F. Walker.

Still another writer sums up a recent article on Liberia as
follows : The Republic needs men, not so much missionaries
in the ordinary sense of the word. Like the Negroes of the
United States, she appears to have no lack of preachers. She
needs men who will support themselves by their toil, and who,
as citizens, will strive for the national good. Especially does
she need men of mechanical ability to grapple with her indus-
trial tasks. I think if I were a Negro, Liberia would appeal
to me strongly upon this ground. I think I would count it a
privilege to cast in my lot with the Negro Republic, to toil with
her for high national ideals, for the assimilation and civiliza-
tion of my brothers of the jungle, and to prove to the world
what the black man can do.



HAITI lies in the Atlantic Ocean a short distance, about <;<><
miles, to the southeast of Florida. This little island
which Christopher Columbus named Hispanola or little
Spain and which was afterward called Santo Domingo, has


been the scene of many stirring events which we can here but
briefly mention. On this island Europeans built the first city
and erected the first Christian church in the New World ; here
Negro slaves struck their first blow for freedom and here was
founded the first Negro Republic.

In formation the country is diversified by mountains and
valleys, by majestic plains and swiftly flowing rivers ; the
landscape is attractive and the climate delightful. When Co-
lumbus and his fellow-voyagers came upon the island in De-
cember, U92, the beauty of the country and the kindness of


the natives so impressed him that in reporting his discovery
to the King and Queen of Spain, he said: "These people love
their neighbors as themselves; their discourse is ever sweet
and gentle and accompanied with a smile. I swear to your
Majesties there is not a better nation or a better land." You
will regret to learn that the example of these natives (who
though ignorant of the Christ, yet practiced his precepts) was
utterly lost upon the Spaniards, so-called followers of Jesus.
The Spaniards had not long been settled upon the island be-
fore they had turned the friendly natives into bitter foes and
the bitterest foe of all was Caonbo.

He had his stronghold in one of the mountain fastnesses and
after the Spaniards began to cruelly treat the natives Caonbo
and his followers would descend from the mountains and
wreak vengeance upon the whites. For a long time he was a
terror to the settlers, but he was finally captured by treachery
and placed on board a vessel bound for Spain, though he did
not live to reach there.

It is said that when the Spaniards discovered the island, the
natives numbered about one million and in fifteen years,
tli rough overwork and cruel treatment, only about one-twen-
tieth of them were living and by the year 1600 the last native
had died. The childish, trusting natives were taught from the
beginning that the Spaniards came fron heaven and as the
cruelties increased and life became unbearable, they began to
ask their oppressors when they would return to heaven and to
beg them to hasten their departure.

When it became evident that the natives would finally die
out entirely, the wicked plan was formed to capture natives of
Africa and bring them over the sea to do the work and suffer
the treatment which had killed so many thousands of the na-
tive Indians of Hispanola ; this, in the early sixteenth century
was the beginning of Negro slavery in the Western Hemi-

The English and the French had long envied the Spanish
their West Indian possessions, and in 1 680 French people


lished a colony at St. Christopher on the island of Santo Domin-
go, but the Spanish drove them away. The French then took
refuge on the tiny island of Tortuga near by and lived quietly
there for awhile; but the Spanish went there one day while
the men were at sea and killed all the women and children.
The Frenchmen, their hearts filled with grief and rage, became
pirates; others joined them and for over fifty years war was
waged between them and the Spanish. In 1697, the French
obtained from Spain a regular cession of the western part of
the island of Santo Domingo and began to colonize it, naming
their part Haiti.

After that, the two nations lived peacefully on the island ;
the fertile soil was thoroughly cultivated and prosperity
reigned. Meanwhile, there had sprung up three distinct di-
visions of the population : the whites, of European descent ;
the blacks, of African descent, and the mulattoes, who were an
admixture of the other two races. From time to time the
blacks had risen in insurrection because of cruel treatment,
many had escaped to the mountains and had there made for
themselves homes; but the large majority were slaves. The
mulattoes, though free in name, were far from free in reality ;
they were taken advantage of, imposed upon and the worst
indignities heaped upon them ; they were allowed to hold no
public office, to take no part in public affairs and to practice
no profession, it mattered not how well qualified they might
have been. So they busied themselves with the buying of
land and other property and with the acquirement of educa-
tion and culture ; they were compelled to serve a length of
time in the army and became skilled in the tactics of war.
Numbers of them grew very wealthy, traveled abroad, edu-
cated their children in France and were persons of refined
and cultivated tastes.

At the outbreak of the revolution in France, the population
of Haiti was about 500,000, of which about 40,000 were whites,
30,000 mulattoes and the remainder, a tremendous majority,
as you see, were black slaves ; the mulattoes at this time owned


about one-third of the soil and one-fourth of the slaves. While
residing in France, the mulattoes had made friends a nong the
most advanced thinkers of that country and, putting before
these friends the state of affairs in Haiti, had received great

The whites of Haiti largely sided with the revolutionary
party in France (though some were Royalists) and at once
responded to the call of the National Convention in Paris by
sending delegates and by adopting the motto: "Liberty, Equal-
ity, Fraternity." The mulattoes also demanded representa-
tion which was denied them, so they sent a delegation of their
own, headed by J. Vincent Oge, who had been educated in
France. This delegation was well received by Lafayette, Abbe
Gregoire, Robespierre and other influential Frenchmen, who
belonged to a society called the Friends of the Blacks, and
who were really trying to put into practice their noble motto ;
said Robespierre, "Perish the colonies rather than sacrifice
one atom of our principles."

When Oge and his fellow delegates returned to Haiti they
were arrested "for their presumption" and put to death in a
horrible manner. This news aroused great indignation in
Paris and the Friends of the Blacks brought such influence to
bear upon the National Assembly that a decree was passed
declaring that "all persons of color, born of free parents, were
entitled to all the privileges of French citizens."

During these happenings neither whites nor mulattoes had
given a thought to the slaves, but the pulse of Freedom was
throbbing throughout the world and the blacks were thinking
for themselves. They had long been secretly planning a stroke
of some kind and on August 23rd, 1791, they arose and swept
from plantation to plantation, killing and burning as they
went. It is said that fully one thousand plantations were de :
stroyed and twelve hundred fa'nilies reduced to want and
misery. As mulattoes and whites were both slave-holders,
this blow drew them together for the time against the blacks ;
the Spanish of Santo Domingo attacked the Haitians, Royal-


ists fought Revolutionists and the war which resulted was
"neither a civil war nor a foreign war, nor a war of races,
but a composite of all three."

At this moment appeared the mighty leader of the Blacks,
Pierre Dominique Toussaint Breda, who, because he could
always find a way or make one, was once called by a French
General, Toussaint the Opener, Toussaint L/Ouverture and
this is the name by which he is known to history. As a child
Toussaint possessed unusual intelligence and was taught to
read and write by a fellow slave. As he grew he was con-
stantly improving his mind ; he gained quite a knowledge of
Latin and medicine and was often employed as a horse doctor.
He was finally promoted to be coach r. an by his master and
allowed the use of the library in his spare time. This advant-
age he fully appreciated as you may judge.

When the slave insurrection broke out on an adjoining plan-
tation, Toussaint refused to join the blacks because he thought
their plans cruel and useless. He secretly conveyed his
master and family to an American vessel which was about to
sail sending with them as much produce as he could gather.
Then, seeing the aimlessness of the insurrection and the need
of leaders, he joined the blacks and immediately was placed
in a responsible position. He disciplined and trained his men,
who were devoted to him, until they were worthy the name

Meantime France and England had gone to war and in May.
1794, an English squadron appeared before Port-Au-Prince ;
the French gave up the city and the English took quiet pos-
session. The blacks and mulattoes had now joined forces and
occupied the mountainous part of the island under the com-
mand of Toussaint and Regaud, a mulatto. In March, 1707,
the French government appointed Toussaint commander-in-
chief of all the armies in Haiti. He began a campaign against
the English "who found him a powerful opponen , and
dreaded exceedingly to fall into his hands." He also aided
jn conquering the Spanish who occupied the ea^rn part of


the island and they, by treaty, gave over the whole island to
France. Toussaint next concluded a treaty with General
Maitland, head of the English forces, who "in behalf of his
government acknowledged Haiti to be an independent, neutral
power and agreed to withdraw his forces from the island."

In connection with the withdrawal of the English a story is
told which shows what manner of man Toussaint was. To
make final arrangements, General Maitland had agreed to visit
General Toussaint at his headquarters, and to do so he was
obliged to cross territory filled with hostile Negro soldiers.
General Roume, a Frenchman, who had a co r-mand some dis-
tance away, knowing that Maitland was practically defence-
less, sent word to General Toussaint to capture the English-
man. When the latter arrived at headquarters he was com-
pelled to wait quite a while before Toussaint appeared, and,
realizing his position began to grow uneasy. When Toussaint
finally made his appearance, he gave Maitland two letters to
read; the first was the treacherous advice of Roume and the
other his reply, which read as follows: "What! Have I not
passed my word to the English general? How then, can you
suppose that I will cover myself with dishonor by breaking it?
His reliance on my good faith leads him to put himself into
my power ; and I should be forever infamous, if I were to act
as you advise. I am faithfully devoted to the Republic; but
will not serve it at the expense of my conscience and my
honor." It is needless to say that General Maitland was ever
after a firm friend of Toussaint L'Ouverture.

When peace \vas restored, Toussaint who had been ap-
pointed governor for life, showed himself as able to lead in
the affairs of state as in affairs of w r ar. He caused the adop-
tion of a constitution which acknowledged the authority of
France, but allowed no distinction between citizens because
of race or color; the whites were protected and their estates
restored to them and prosperity returned to Haiti.. When
Napoleon Bonapart made himself First Consul of France,
Toussaint, admiring his genius, sent him a communication ad-


dressed "From the First of the Blacks to the First of the
Whites." Napoleon, incapable of valuing such qualities of
mind and heart as Toussaint possessed, deeply resented what
he considered the presumption of the ex-slave ; he could not
bear the thought of Haiti, independent and free, and resolved
to establish slavery again.

To this end he fitted out an expedition under command of
his brother-in-law, Le Clerc, which suddenly appeared off
Cape Francois. Le Clerc seized Sanjos, the harbormaster, and
threatened to hang him if he refused to lead the squadron into
the harbor or to reward him with 2,000 pounds sterling if
he consented. Sanjos heroically refused to betray his country,
but Le Clerc succeeded in making a landing near by. General
Henri Christophe, commander of the forces in the vicinity,
upon hearing of the arrival of the French, burned the town to
ashes and marched his men to Toussaint's residence about
forty miles away.

Le Clerc had brought over with him Toussaint's sons who
had been studying in France. He sent them, under guard, to
their father to beg him to yield quietly, claiming (the boys
really believed it) that Napoleon had only the good of Haiti
at heart. Toussaint's wife joined her prayers to those of her
children and the great general began to feel that they might
be right. But soon his insight taught him that the French
meant nothing but evil and once more he took up arms.

When Le Clerc found that he could not subdue the Haitians
he made a treaty of peace with them which he had no inten-
tion of keeping. Shortly after this the home of Toussaint was
^nnounded at midnight and he and his family were placed on
a vessel and hurried to France. It is said that the noble gen-
eral did not lose hope, but felt that Napoleon would give him
justice. Being himself the soul of honor, capable of justice to
his humblest enemy, he judged the First Consul by himself,
but he was to find out his sad mistake. Upon arriving at
France he was separated from his family ; he never saw Na-
poleon, but was taken from one prison to another and finally


unused to the climate and tortured by cold and hunger, on
April 27th, 1803, in the gloomy dungeon of Joux, great Tous-
saint died.

The Haitians, furious at the treacherous and inhuman treat-
ment of their leader, took up arms under General Jean Jac-
ques Dessalines. The French army was reduced to a handful,
as much by yellow fever as by war and was compelled to ca-
pitulate. On January 1st, 1807, Haiti proclaimed her inde-
pendence and Dessalines was appointed governor for life,
shortly after taking upon hi -n self the title of Emperor Jean
Jacques I. Unfortunately, he had not experienced and wit-
nessed the inhumanities of the French and Spanish in vain,
and after a reign of about two years, marked by the greatest
cruelties to the whites, he was assassinated.

The Spanish now took back the eastern part of the island
and the western was governed in the north by Henri Chris-
tophe and in the south by Petion ; Christophe took the title of
King Henri I and had his family proclaimed as royal, but
Petion remained satisfied with the title of president. Upon
the death of these two, Haiti was united under the rule of
Boyer. He succeeded in bringing the Spanish part under his
government, and the whole island became one republic and
was recognized by France in 1825. In 184^, the citizens re-
volted against lloyer and compelled him to flee, and in 1844
those of the Spanish section formed themselves into an inde-
pendent republic, taking their old name, Santo Domingo.

The capitol of the Republic of Santo Domingo is the city of
the same name which was founded in 1496 by Bartolemeo
Colombo, brother of Christopher Columbus. It was destroyed
by hurricane in 1547, and rebuilt on right bank of the Ozama.
The government is in the hands of a president, a senate, and a
chamber of deputies ; there is a supreme court and a regular
army. The inhabitants are largely of mixed European and
African blood and there are many Turks and Syrians ; the
language is Spanish and the religion Roman Catholic. The


people engage in cattle raising, etc., and sugar growing is a
flourishing industry.

The Republic of Haiti is governed by a president, a senate
and a chamber of commerce. The inhabitants number about
960,000, about nine-tenths of whom are rated Negroes, the
remainder mulattoes. There are four hundred national
schools, for which one million dollars are annually appro-
priated ; the religion is Roman Catholic, the language French ;
the people chiefly engage in agricultural pursuits and excel-
lent coffee, cotton and cocoa are grown. There is a light rail-
way and a tramway of about five miles in Port-au-Prince, the

Besides the men already named, the following have ruled
over Haiti: Jean Pierre Boyer, from 1818 to 1843; Herard-
Riviere, four months; General Pierrot; General Soulouque,
who called himself "Faustin I, Emperor of Haiti," and ruled
from 1847 until 1859, organized a terrible massacre of mulat-
toes. He was succeeded by a mulatto, Fabre Geffrard, 1859-
67; then came Sylvain Salnave, 1867-9; Nissage-Saget, LS69-
74; Michel Domingue, 1874-6; General Boisrond-Canal, 1876-
9; General Salomon, 1879-88; Gen. F. D. Legitime, 18S8-9 ;
General Hyppolite, 1889-96; Gen. T. A. S. Sam, 189G-1JM2 ;
Gen. Nord Alexis, 1902-08; Gen. H. E. A. Simon, 1908-1911.

Hon. E. D. Bassett, of Pennsylvania, was the first United
States Minister to Haiti, and served from 1869 to 1877. He
was succeeded by John M. Langston. Other ministers were
Frederick Douglass, John S. Durham, W. F. Powell.

The Rev. Theodore Holly, minister of the Protestant Epis-
copal Church, made a visit to Haiti in 1855 to consult with the
authorities there as to the proposed settling in that country of
American Negroes. In 1861, a number of colored people left
this country to make their homes in Haiti, and some of their
descendants are there at the present time. In 1874, Mr. Holly
was consecrated Bishop in Grace Church, New York, and
was given charge of the work in Haiti. Bishop Holly gained


the affection of the people and did a notable work in the island.
Me died March 22, 1911.

The history of Haiti is not a peaceful one, for the Haitians
are, as we have seen, both by inheritance and training, a war-
like people and there have been many uprisings and revolu-
tions. It has been said, however, that the mass of the people
have long since tired of war; and, indeed, how could it be
otherwise since they are always the ones who suffer most?

There has been and is, however, a set of men who, instead
of devoting their time and talents to the arts of peace, are
always ready to bring about an upheaval hoping thereby to
gain for themselves wealth or position ; there are also men of
other nations who, hoping for financial gain, are constantly,
though secretly, urging the Haitian malcontents to revolution.

How sad that the example of great Toussaint should so
often be forgotten; Toussaint to whom Haiti was always first
and self last; Toussaint, true patriot, statesman and soldier of
whom it has been said: "It is to affirm the scantiest truth that
to the names of Cincinnatus and Washington, history has
that of Toussaint L'Ouverture."

6 4



Tl 1 E early history of the Negro in Brazil and in all the West
Indies Islands was much the same as the early history of
the wicked system of slavery in Haiti. In each place we
see the native Indians oppressed, crushed and killed in great
numbers ; we then see native Africans brought over to take the


place of the Indians. Brazil was the headquarters of slavery in
South America, and the first African slaves were brought to
15 ruxil by the Dutch, in the early seventeenth century. Though
for many years the Dutch and the Portuguese contended for
power in Brazil, to the Negro it mattered not which side won
for he still remained in slavery. Both nations established col-
onies in Africa whence they exported natives to the New
World, and it is said that for years the average exportation
was not less than forty thousand each year.


In the latter part of the seventeenth century, about seventy
years after the arrival of the first slaves, a number of Negroes
working in the forests of Pernambuco, beat down their over-
seers, took their freedom and for many years harried the Por-
tuguese. In 17151 a plot was formed by Negroes in Minas
Geraes, southeast Brazil, to kill all the whites on Holy Thurs-
day ; but the plan was betrayed before the time and most of
those concerned in it fled to the forests and lived with the
Indians. These and other escaped slaves in Brazil and the
West Indies became known as Maroons.

The origin of the word " Maroon " is uncertain, but it was
a name greatly dreaded by the whites of the countries above
named, for the Maroons were merciless and fearless. In the
Dutch colony of Surinam, a band of Maroons had been form-
ing for some years and by suddenly descending upon the set-
tlers, from time to time, had obtained arms and ammunition.
The authorities of the colony repeatedly tried to conquer or
scatter them, but were always unsuccessful.

its all o.k. ed ucation ciatation

PAN The horse on the Shawdow


Isalnds afar in my dreams and my rockin roll fantasy

national parks and photo script

Crystal Ship Zorro


Baby panda bear


ccryderzz 1969 reinvested 2008 virginia wolf wildlife protector

I am a person who believes the fragile ecosystems are being destroyed we need alternate energy.. Years ago people understood the using of the land.. the old wisdom from the groups that were here, the Incas the Aztec's the trading routes created for to help give people on earth the needed items, not for a bunch of people too make a bazillion dollars on.. the energy was here for the taking in an natural way, to co-exist with humankind to live to and to let other cultures live and thrive. No one believes that they are to grow up to be a slave to men only a small group of men. Why? what is the normal way? Not to be greedy there is enough to share.. with each other. Quit taking money from people who can't even afford to go to the dentist.. think back on the doctors who traded for eggs a chicken or a cow.. go back to the old days. Think read be happy and content. with living within your own means. ZZ
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The blue birds are real

I sat on a river bank only to watch a bluebird take flight and chase the white bird and the eagle down to the rivers edge.
as I saw with my eyes the miracle of Gods grace on humankind. quote by ccryderzz

World Clocks

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How many homeless are in Eugene Oregon


About Me

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Roll with politics,justice and Truth my shield.Advocate for any citizen who needs my help. Polysci,Real Estate Law Appointed by "County Commissioners" Health Advisory: Dental clinic committee 1993 MLK press conference to open: "White Bird" Dental clinic 1992-2001 "Family" Pendleton's Marine Sergent (Air Force Base). (dad) Lobbyists Victims Assistance for Violent Crimes. Netherlands Uncle: producer t.v. Ventura Star Newspaper Editor Ventura,Scientist, Litton Engineer current technology developed for military.Alaska Oil pipeline technician. (Dad) Boing Boing his inventions wood working. contribution to society T.V. Nike for graphic design. Photography, Authors,medical laboratory technicians Radio Network executives; Art/science and herbalist gardens,animals the rain forest we need to protect