Thursday, October 23, 2008

Egypt and dark ages of the past history lesson

IN the United States freed their slaves and sent them to Liberia.
Hundreds were recaptured from slave vessels, and several
companies of free Negroes joined the colony. The colonization
society had branches in many states and was untiring in its
effort to support the colony. The Colonization Society of
Maryland was independent of the National Colonization
Society because it \vas found that thereby it would receive
more support from the state legislature. The colony at Cape
Palmas was founded and controlled by 'the Maryland Coloniza-
tion Society, but finally became part of the Liberian Republic.

The natives showed themselves willing to be taught.
Writing of them in 3827 Lot Gary said: " The heathen in our
vicinity are very anxious for the means of light. They will
buy it, beg it, and sooner than miss it, they will steal it. In
renewing our school establishment up to Cape Mount, I had
upwards of forty natives carry out baggage, and though they
had every opportunity to commit depredations nothing was lost
except fifteen spelling books."

When it was plainly to be seen that Liberia as a colony
could not defend itself steps were taken to form it into an
independent government, and on July 2C>, 1847, the colony
became the Free and Independent Republic of Liberia. Article
I, Section 1 of the constitution reads as follows: All men are
born equally free and independent, and have certain natural
inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the rights of
enjoying and defending life and liberty, of at quiring, possess-
ing and protecting property, and of pursuing and obtaining
safety and happiness.

The republic was first recognized by Great Britain, next
by France and then by the other powers. The chief officials
are the President, Vice President, a Senate and House of
Representatives, a Cabinet and a Supreme Court. The Presi-
dent must be thirty-five years of age and own real estate;
electors must be of Negro blood and be owners of land ; na-
tives may vote but usually do not except in larger towns.

Governor Joseph Jenkins Roberts became the first President

of the Liberian Republic and served from 1848 to 1856. Suc-
ceeding Presidents were Hon. Stephen A. Benson, 185li-(il;
Daniel Warner, 18(54-08 ; James S. Payne, 18ti8-70; Edward
J. Roye, 1870-72; James Jenkins Roberts, 1872-10; James
Spriggs Payne, 187G-78; Anthony W. Gardner, 1878-84;
Hiliary R. W. Johnson, 1884-1891; Joseph J. Cheeseman,
1892-98; William D. Coleman, 1898-1900; Garretson W. Gib-
son, 1900-04; Arthur Barclay, 1904-12.

On January J, 1912, Hon. Daniel Edward Howard was
inaugurated President of the republic. " It was the first inau-
guration ever attended by native chiefs."

Liberia is about the size of the State of .New York, and the
total population is between fifteen and twenty-one hundred
thousand, about twelve thousand of whom are Americo-
Liberians. The principal tribes represented are the Mandingo.
the Kisi, the Gola, the Kru and allies. The coast region is
divided into three counties Basa, Sino, and Maryland.

There is a government college, Methodist college and a
Protestant Episcopal high school ; Dr. Blyden was at one time
president of Liberia College. Dr. Alexandet Crummell once
had charge of the Episcopal mission in that country.

Francis Burns was the first colored missionary bishop of the
Methodist Episcopal Church to West Africa, serving from
1S."s to 1S<;:>. In 18;> I he went to Liberia and did splendid
work as evangelist and teacher. Upon his election to the
bishopric, he came to this country to be ordained and returned
to Africa. In a few years his health failed and in 18(53 he died.
John Wright Roberts was ordained a few years afterward
and succeeded Bishop Burns. " Roberts vigorously carried
forward the work so wisely begun by his predecessor, and it
is said that at the time of his death, in 1875, the Methodist
Episcopal Church in Africa numbered more than two hundred
thousand souls." " The Right Reverend S. D. Ferguson, the
present Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Liberia, is a native
of South Carolina. Bishop Ferguson has spent almost his
entire life in Africa. Although now advanced in age, he is
extremely active and has a firm grip on his work. He has
trained up a fine body of native clergymen."

In Liberia there is an organized militia, a volunteer force
and a police force. Every male citizen from sixteen years old
to fifty, capable of bearing arms, is liable to serve. The
national flag bears a single star and stripes.

The hinterland is undeveloped so that the resources of the
country are not exactly known, but gold, diamonds, copper,
lead, zinc have been found. There are no railways and oxcarts
are the vehicles commonly used ; a motor road has recently
been constructed, about twenty miles in length. Seven lines
of steamers regularly visit Monrovia British, German,
French, Spanish.

The following colored Americans have served as United
States Ministers to Liberia : Hon. J. Milton Turner, John H.
Smyth, Henry Highland Garnet, O. W. L. Smith, Ernest
Lyon, W. D. Crum. Hon. James Robert Spurgeon, a graduate
of Yale, was at one time secretary of legation. He was com-
mended for excellent service. In 1902, Hon. George W. Ellis,
of Kansas University, succeeded Mr. Spurgeon. Mr. Ellis
served eight and one half years, and as he is an authority upon
questions of economics and sociology, he was able to render
important service to the Liberian government.

Of Liberia, Mr. Ellis says: "Liberia offers to the United
States an opening to the most extensive, the most desirable and
the best paying commerce of all the world. Agricultural pos-
sibilities of the republic are tremendous, on account of the
fertility of the soil. Liberia also affords access to a hundred
million Sudanese natives, the highest type of the Negro race,
and cultured in many arts." "The Sudanese of northern Africa
have a civilization dating back for centuries, and similar in its
origin to that which made Morocco the metropolis of Negro
culture years ago."

Besides the multitude of valuable articles to be found in
Liberia proper and the Hinterland, " not least are the hides of
many animals of the leopard, the beautiful spotted bushcat,
of many varieties of deer, of the monkey, the alligator and the
boa-constrictor. Alf these beasts inhabit the interior. The
elephant is to be found within two or three days' walk of Cape
Mount. Domestic cattle are also numerous on the Mandingan
plains and among some of the coast tribes. These cattle are
descended from ancient stock, introduced into Africa centuries
ago from Egypt and the Mediterranean."

The government of Liberia has not had a smooth path, for,
envious of the great natural wealth which the country contains,
some of the European powers have artfully tried to undermine
the republic. In 1910 a commission, appointed by President of
U. S., visited Liberia to look into the condition of the country,
as the Liberians had urgently requested America to come to
their aid. The commission consisted of Messrs. Roland P.
Folkner, George Sale and Emmett J. Scott : the latter has been
for many years, secretary to [Dr. Booker T. Washington.] The
commission reported favorably and the United States has
established a sort of financial protectorate over the country and
has placed American officials in charge of Liberian customs.

Writing of Liberia in 1832 a visitor says : " All my expecta-
tions in regard to the health, harmony, order, contentment,
industry and general prosperity of the settlers were more than
realized. I saw no intemperance nor did I hear a profane
word. I know of no place where the Sabbath appears to be
more respected than in Monrovia; no man, not even a native,
could be hired " for love or money " to work on the Sabbath
day. Most of the settlers appear to be rapidly acquiringprop-
erty and I have no doubt that they are doing better for them-
serves and their children than they could do in any other part
of the world."

"Previous to the settlement of Liberia the mouths of the
rivers St. Paul, Mesurado and St. John were the greatest marts
for slaves on the windward coast. Thousands came down
those streams each year and were sold away. Now those
rivers are used by the husbandmen to bring their produce to
Monrovia, Grand P>assa and Etina, and the native paddles
Eliis canoe in safety under the protection of the colonies founded
by the Colonization Society." Funny how that works My family?

A visitor to Liberia in 1910 writes: "The people of Mon-
rovia look, act and dress very like the better class of Negroes
of Atlanta or Louisville. All the Americo-Liberians (and
many civilized natives) are neatly but not flashily clothed, and
most of the aborigines put on an extra cloth when they come
to town. I doubt if there be anywhere in the United States a
Negro community of the size of Monrovia where there is so
little boistcrousness or profanity. Swearing is a lost art and 1
saw but one case of drunkenness during my first month in

" The Liberian Sabbath suggests the quiet of a New England
.city a quiet that is broken only by the sound of church
organs and congregational singing. The churches are well
attended and the services are conducted with due regard to
dignity and reverence." So you see that for at least eighty
years the Liberians have conducted themselves with the same
dignity and have had no need to be ashamed of their country.

A writer describes the inaugural ceremonies of President
Howard, held January 1, 1912. as very imposing. " It was the
first inauguration ever attended by native chiefs, headmen and
retainers, and their presence was significant. They talked
nothing but peace and prosperity, and promised to do all in
their power to make the new administration a highly successful
one. Nearly two thousand natives from the interior listened to
President Howard advocate that they be given equal rights,
and when on the second day President Howard and Vice
President Harmon donned attire similar to that worn by the
native chiefs, the incident occasioned much good feeling."

Following is the official family of the new administration :
President, Daniel Edward Howard; Vice President, Samuel
George Harmon; Secretary of State, CD. B. King; Secretary
of Treasury, Thomas W. Haynes ; Secretary of War and Navy,
Wilmot E. Dennis; Postmaster General, Col. Isaac Moort;
Secretary of Interior, J. J. Morris ; Attorney General, Samuel


A. Ross; Secretary of Education, B. W. Payne; Executive
Secretary to the President, Walter F. Walker.

Still another writer sums up a recent article on Liberia as
follows : The Republic needs men, not so much missionaries
in the ordinary sense of the word. Like the Negroes of the
United States, she appears to have no lack of preachers. She
needs men who will support themselves by their toil, and who,
as citizens, will strive for the national good. Especially does
she need men of mechanical ability to grapple with her indus-
trial tasks. I think if I were a Negro, Liberia would appeal
to me strongly upon this ground. I think I would count it a
privilege to cast in my lot with the Negro Republic, to toil with
her for high national ideals, for the assimilation and civiliza-
tion of my brothers of the jungle, and to prove to the world
what the black man can do.



HAITI lies in the Atlantic Ocean a short distance, about <;<><
miles, to the southeast of Florida. This little island
which Christopher Columbus named Hispanola or little
Spain and which was afterward called Santo Domingo, has


been the scene of many stirring events which we can here but
briefly mention. On this island Europeans built the first city
and erected the first Christian church in the New World ; here
Negro slaves struck their first blow for freedom and here was
founded the first Negro Republic.

In formation the country is diversified by mountains and
valleys, by majestic plains and swiftly flowing rivers ; the
landscape is attractive and the climate delightful. When Co-
lumbus and his fellow-voyagers came upon the island in De-
cember, U92, the beauty of the country and the kindness of


the natives so impressed him that in reporting his discovery
to the King and Queen of Spain, he said: "These people love
their neighbors as themselves; their discourse is ever sweet
and gentle and accompanied with a smile. I swear to your
Majesties there is not a better nation or a better land." You
will regret to learn that the example of these natives (who
though ignorant of the Christ, yet practiced his precepts) was
utterly lost upon the Spaniards, so-called followers of Jesus.
The Spaniards had not long been settled upon the island be-
fore they had turned the friendly natives into bitter foes and
the bitterest foe of all was Caonbo.

He had his stronghold in one of the mountain fastnesses and
after the Spaniards began to cruelly treat the natives Caonbo
and his followers would descend from the mountains and
wreak vengeance upon the whites. For a long time he was a
terror to the settlers, but he was finally captured by treachery
and placed on board a vessel bound for Spain, though he did
not live to reach there.

It is said that when the Spaniards discovered the island, the
natives numbered about one million and in fifteen years,
tli rough overwork and cruel treatment, only about one-twen-
tieth of them were living and by the year 1600 the last native
had died. The childish, trusting natives were taught from the
beginning that the Spaniards came fron heaven and as the
cruelties increased and life became unbearable, they began to
ask their oppressors when they would return to heaven and to
beg them to hasten their departure.

When it became evident that the natives would finally die
out entirely, the wicked plan was formed to capture natives of
Africa and bring them over the sea to do the work and suffer
the treatment which had killed so many thousands of the na-
tive Indians of Hispanola ; this, in the early sixteenth century
was the beginning of Negro slavery in the Western Hemi-

The English and the French had long envied the Spanish
their West Indian possessions, and in 1 680 French people


lished a colony at St. Christopher on the island of Santo Domin-
go, but the Spanish drove them away. The French then took
refuge on the tiny island of Tortuga near by and lived quietly
there for awhile; but the Spanish went there one day while
the men were at sea and killed all the women and children.
The Frenchmen, their hearts filled with grief and rage, became
pirates; others joined them and for over fifty years war was
waged between them and the Spanish. In 1697, the French
obtained from Spain a regular cession of the western part of
the island of Santo Domingo and began to colonize it, naming
their part Haiti.

After that, the two nations lived peacefully on the island ;
the fertile soil was thoroughly cultivated and prosperity
reigned. Meanwhile, there had sprung up three distinct di-
visions of the population : the whites, of European descent ;
the blacks, of African descent, and the mulattoes, who were an
admixture of the other two races. From time to time the
blacks had risen in insurrection because of cruel treatment,
many had escaped to the mountains and had there made for
themselves homes; but the large majority were slaves. The
mulattoes, though free in name, were far from free in reality ;
they were taken advantage of, imposed upon and the worst
indignities heaped upon them ; they were allowed to hold no
public office, to take no part in public affairs and to practice
no profession, it mattered not how well qualified they might
have been. So they busied themselves with the buying of
land and other property and with the acquirement of educa-
tion and culture ; they were compelled to serve a length of
time in the army and became skilled in the tactics of war.
Numbers of them grew very wealthy, traveled abroad, edu-
cated their children in France and were persons of refined
and cultivated tastes.

At the outbreak of the revolution in France, the population
of Haiti was about 500,000, of which about 40,000 were whites,
30,000 mulattoes and the remainder, a tremendous majority,
as you see, were black slaves ; the mulattoes at this time owned


about one-third of the soil and one-fourth of the slaves. While
residing in France, the mulattoes had made friends a nong the
most advanced thinkers of that country and, putting before
these friends the state of affairs in Haiti, had received great

The whites of Haiti largely sided with the revolutionary
party in France (though some were Royalists) and at once
responded to the call of the National Convention in Paris by
sending delegates and by adopting the motto: "Liberty, Equal-
ity, Fraternity." The mulattoes also demanded representa-
tion which was denied them, so they sent a delegation of their
own, headed by J. Vincent Oge, who had been educated in
France. This delegation was well received by Lafayette, Abbe
Gregoire, Robespierre and other influential Frenchmen, who
belonged to a society called the Friends of the Blacks, and
who were really trying to put into practice their noble motto ;
said Robespierre, "Perish the colonies rather than sacrifice
one atom of our principles."

When Oge and his fellow delegates returned to Haiti they
were arrested "for their presumption" and put to death in a
horrible manner. This news aroused great indignation in
Paris and the Friends of the Blacks brought such influence to
bear upon the National Assembly that a decree was passed
declaring that "all persons of color, born of free parents, were
entitled to all the privileges of French citizens."

During these happenings neither whites nor mulattoes had
given a thought to the slaves, but the pulse of Freedom was
throbbing throughout the world and the blacks were thinking
for themselves. They had long been secretly planning a stroke
of some kind and on August 23rd, 1791, they arose and swept
from plantation to plantation, killing and burning as they
went. It is said that fully one thousand plantations were de :
stroyed and twelve hundred fa'nilies reduced to want and
misery. As mulattoes and whites were both slave-holders,
this blow drew them together for the time against the blacks ;
the Spanish of Santo Domingo attacked the Haitians, Royal-


ists fought Revolutionists and the war which resulted was
"neither a civil war nor a foreign war, nor a war of races,
but a composite of all three."

At this moment appeared the mighty leader of the Blacks,
Pierre Dominique Toussaint Breda, who, because he could
always find a way or make one, was once called by a French
General, Toussaint the Opener, Toussaint L/Ouverture and
this is the name by which he is known to history. As a child
Toussaint possessed unusual intelligence and was taught to
read and write by a fellow slave. As he grew he was con-
stantly improving his mind ; he gained quite a knowledge of
Latin and medicine and was often employed as a horse doctor.
He was finally promoted to be coach r. an by his master and
allowed the use of the library in his spare time. This advant-
age he fully appreciated as you may judge.

When the slave insurrection broke out on an adjoining plan-
tation, Toussaint refused to join the blacks because he thought
their plans cruel and useless. He secretly conveyed his
master and family to an American vessel which was about to
sail sending with them as much produce as he could gather.
Then, seeing the aimlessness of the insurrection and the need
of leaders, he joined the blacks and immediately was placed
in a responsible position. He disciplined and trained his men,
who were devoted to him, until they were worthy the name

Meantime France and England had gone to war and in May.
1794, an English squadron appeared before Port-Au-Prince ;
the French gave up the city and the English took quiet pos-
session. The blacks and mulattoes had now joined forces and
occupied the mountainous part of the island under the com-
mand of Toussaint and Regaud, a mulatto. In March, 1707,
the French government appointed Toussaint commander-in-
chief of all the armies in Haiti. He began a campaign against
the English "who found him a powerful opponen , and
dreaded exceedingly to fall into his hands." He also aided
jn conquering the Spanish who occupied the ea^rn part of


the island and they, by treaty, gave over the whole island to
France. Toussaint next concluded a treaty with General
Maitland, head of the English forces, who "in behalf of his
government acknowledged Haiti to be an independent, neutral
power and agreed to withdraw his forces from the island."

In connection with the withdrawal of the English a story is
told which shows what manner of man Toussaint was. To
make final arrangements, General Maitland had agreed to visit
General Toussaint at his headquarters, and to do so he was
obliged to cross territory filled with hostile Negro soldiers.
General Roume, a Frenchman, who had a co r-mand some dis-
tance away, knowing that Maitland was practically defence-
less, sent word to General Toussaint to capture the English-
man. When the latter arrived at headquarters he was com-
pelled to wait quite a while before Toussaint appeared, and,
realizing his position began to grow uneasy. When Toussaint
finally made his appearance, he gave Maitland two letters to
read; the first was the treacherous advice of Roume and the
other his reply, which read as follows: "What! Have I not
passed my word to the English general? How then, can you
suppose that I will cover myself with dishonor by breaking it?
His reliance on my good faith leads him to put himself into
my power ; and I should be forever infamous, if I were to act
as you advise. I am faithfully devoted to the Republic; but
will not serve it at the expense of my conscience and my
honor." It is needless to say that General Maitland was ever
after a firm friend of Toussaint L'Ouverture.

When peace \vas restored, Toussaint who had been ap-
pointed governor for life, showed himself as able to lead in
the affairs of state as in affairs of w r ar. He caused the adop-
tion of a constitution which acknowledged the authority of
France, but allowed no distinction between citizens because
of race or color; the whites were protected and their estates
restored to them and prosperity returned to Haiti.. When
Napoleon Bonapart made himself First Consul of France,
Toussaint, admiring his genius, sent him a communication ad-


dressed "From the First of the Blacks to the First of the
Whites." Napoleon, incapable of valuing such qualities of
mind and heart as Toussaint possessed, deeply resented what
he considered the presumption of the ex-slave ; he could not
bear the thought of Haiti, independent and free, and resolved
to establish slavery again.

To this end he fitted out an expedition under command of
his brother-in-law, Le Clerc, which suddenly appeared off
Cape Francois. Le Clerc seized Sanjos, the harbormaster, and
threatened to hang him if he refused to lead the squadron into
the harbor or to reward him with 2,000 pounds sterling if
he consented. Sanjos heroically refused to betray his country,
but Le Clerc succeeded in making a landing near by. General
Henri Christophe, commander of the forces in the vicinity,
upon hearing of the arrival of the French, burned the town to
ashes and marched his men to Toussaint's residence about
forty miles away.

Le Clerc had brought over with him Toussaint's sons who
had been studying in France. He sent them, under guard, to
their father to beg him to yield quietly, claiming (the boys
really believed it) that Napoleon had only the good of Haiti
at heart. Toussaint's wife joined her prayers to those of her
children and the great general began to feel that they might
be right. But soon his insight taught him that the French
meant nothing but evil and once more he took up arms.

When Le Clerc found that he could not subdue the Haitians
he made a treaty of peace with them which he had no inten-
tion of keeping. Shortly after this the home of Toussaint was
^nnounded at midnight and he and his family were placed on
a vessel and hurried to France. It is said that the noble gen-
eral did not lose hope, but felt that Napoleon would give him
justice. Being himself the soul of honor, capable of justice to
his humblest enemy, he judged the First Consul by himself,
but he was to find out his sad mistake. Upon arriving at
France he was separated from his family ; he never saw Na-
poleon, but was taken from one prison to another and finally


unused to the climate and tortured by cold and hunger, on
April 27th, 1803, in the gloomy dungeon of Joux, great Tous-
saint died.

The Haitians, furious at the treacherous and inhuman treat-
ment of their leader, took up arms under General Jean Jac-
ques Dessalines. The French army was reduced to a handful,
as much by yellow fever as by war and was compelled to ca-
pitulate. On January 1st, 1807, Haiti proclaimed her inde-
pendence and Dessalines was appointed governor for life,
shortly after taking upon hi -n self the title of Emperor Jean
Jacques I. Unfortunately, he had not experienced and wit-
nessed the inhumanities of the French and Spanish in vain,
and after a reign of about two years, marked by the greatest
cruelties to the whites, he was assassinated.

The Spanish now took back the eastern part of the island
and the western was governed in the north by Henri Chris-
tophe and in the south by Petion ; Christophe took the title of
King Henri I and had his family proclaimed as royal, but
Petion remained satisfied with the title of president. Upon
the death of these two, Haiti was united under the rule of
Boyer. He succeeded in bringing the Spanish part under his
government, and the whole island became one republic and
was recognized by France in 1825. In 184^, the citizens re-
volted against lloyer and compelled him to flee, and in 1844
those of the Spanish section formed themselves into an inde-
pendent republic, taking their old name, Santo Domingo.

The capitol of the Republic of Santo Domingo is the city of
the same name which was founded in 1496 by Bartolemeo
Colombo, brother of Christopher Columbus. It was destroyed
by hurricane in 1547, and rebuilt on right bank of the Ozama.
The government is in the hands of a president, a senate, and a
chamber of deputies ; there is a supreme court and a regular
army. The inhabitants are largely of mixed European and
African blood and there are many Turks and Syrians ; the
language is Spanish and the religion Roman Catholic. The


people engage in cattle raising, etc., and sugar growing is a
flourishing industry.

The Republic of Haiti is governed by a president, a senate
and a chamber of commerce. The inhabitants number about
960,000, about nine-tenths of whom are rated Negroes, the
remainder mulattoes. There are four hundred national
schools, for which one million dollars are annually appro-
priated ; the religion is Roman Catholic, the language French ;
the people chiefly engage in agricultural pursuits and excel-
lent coffee, cotton and cocoa are grown. There is a light rail-
way and a tramway of about five miles in Port-au-Prince, the

Besides the men already named, the following have ruled
over Haiti: Jean Pierre Boyer, from 1818 to 1843; Herard-
Riviere, four months; General Pierrot; General Soulouque,
who called himself "Faustin I, Emperor of Haiti," and ruled
from 1847 until 1859, organized a terrible massacre of mulat-
toes. He was succeeded by a mulatto, Fabre Geffrard, 1859-
67; then came Sylvain Salnave, 1867-9; Nissage-Saget, LS69-
74; Michel Domingue, 1874-6; General Boisrond-Canal, 1876-
9; General Salomon, 1879-88; Gen. F. D. Legitime, 18S8-9 ;
General Hyppolite, 1889-96; Gen. T. A. S. Sam, 189G-1JM2 ;
Gen. Nord Alexis, 1902-08; Gen. H. E. A. Simon, 1908-1911.

Hon. E. D. Bassett, of Pennsylvania, was the first United
States Minister to Haiti, and served from 1869 to 1877. He
was succeeded by John M. Langston. Other ministers were
Frederick Douglass, John S. Durham, W. F. Powell.

The Rev. Theodore Holly, minister of the Protestant Epis-
copal Church, made a visit to Haiti in 1855 to consult with the
authorities there as to the proposed settling in that country of
American Negroes. In 1861, a number of colored people left
this country to make their homes in Haiti, and some of their
descendants are there at the present time. In 1874, Mr. Holly
was consecrated Bishop in Grace Church, New York, and
was given charge of the work in Haiti. Bishop Holly gained


the affection of the people and did a notable work in the island.
Me died March 22, 1911.

The history of Haiti is not a peaceful one, for the Haitians
are, as we have seen, both by inheritance and training, a war-
like people and there have been many uprisings and revolu-
tions. It has been said, however, that the mass of the people
have long since tired of war; and, indeed, how could it be
otherwise since they are always the ones who suffer most?

There has been and is, however, a set of men who, instead
of devoting their time and talents to the arts of peace, are
always ready to bring about an upheaval hoping thereby to
gain for themselves wealth or position ; there are also men of
other nations who, hoping for financial gain, are constantly,
though secretly, urging the Haitian malcontents to revolution.

How sad that the example of great Toussaint should so
often be forgotten; Toussaint to whom Haiti was always first
and self last; Toussaint, true patriot, statesman and soldier of
whom it has been said: "It is to affirm the scantiest truth that
to the names of Cincinnatus and Washington, history has
that of Toussaint L'Ouverture."

6 4



Tl 1 E early history of the Negro in Brazil and in all the West
Indies Islands was much the same as the early history of
the wicked system of slavery in Haiti. In each place we
see the native Indians oppressed, crushed and killed in great
numbers ; we then see native Africans brought over to take the


place of the Indians. Brazil was the headquarters of slavery in
South America, and the first African slaves were brought to
15 ruxil by the Dutch, in the early seventeenth century. Though
for many years the Dutch and the Portuguese contended for
power in Brazil, to the Negro it mattered not which side won
for he still remained in slavery. Both nations established col-
onies in Africa whence they exported natives to the New
World, and it is said that for years the average exportation
was not less than forty thousand each year.


In the latter part of the seventeenth century, about seventy
years after the arrival of the first slaves, a number of Negroes
working in the forests of Pernambuco, beat down their over-
seers, took their freedom and for many years harried the Por-
tuguese. In 17151 a plot was formed by Negroes in Minas
Geraes, southeast Brazil, to kill all the whites on Holy Thurs-
day ; but the plan was betrayed before the time and most of
those concerned in it fled to the forests and lived with the
Indians. These and other escaped slaves in Brazil and the
West Indies became known as Maroons.

The origin of the word " Maroon " is uncertain, but it was
a name greatly dreaded by the whites of the countries above
named, for the Maroons were merciless and fearless. In the
Dutch colony of Surinam, a band of Maroons had been form-
ing for some years and by suddenly descending upon the set-
tlers, from time to time, had obtained arms and ammunition.
The authorities of the colony repeatedly tried to conquer or
scatter them, but were always unsuccessful.

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its all o.k. ed ucation ciatation

PAN The horse on the Shawdow


Isalnds afar in my dreams and my rockin roll fantasy

national parks and photo script

Crystal Ship Zorro


Baby panda bear


ccryderzz 1969 reinvested 2008 virginia wolf wildlife protector

I am a person who believes the fragile ecosystems are being destroyed we need alternate energy.. Years ago people understood the using of the land.. the old wisdom from the groups that were here, the Incas the Aztec's the trading routes created for to help give people on earth the needed items, not for a bunch of people too make a bazillion dollars on.. the energy was here for the taking in an natural way, to co-exist with humankind to live to and to let other cultures live and thrive. No one believes that they are to grow up to be a slave to men only a small group of men. Why? what is the normal way? Not to be greedy there is enough to share.. with each other. Quit taking money from people who can't even afford to go to the dentist.. think back on the doctors who traded for eggs a chicken or a cow.. go back to the old days. Think read be happy and content. with living within your own means. ZZ
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The blue birds are real

I sat on a river bank only to watch a bluebird take flight and chase the white bird and the eagle down to the rivers edge.
as I saw with my eyes the miracle of Gods grace on humankind. quote by ccryderzz
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How many homeless are in Eugene Oregon


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Roll with politics,justice and Truth my shield.Advocate for any citizen who needs my help. Polysci,Real Estate Law Appointed by "County Commissioners" Health Advisory: Dental clinic committee 1993 MLK press conference to open: "White Bird" Dental clinic 1992-2001 "Family" Pendleton's Marine Sergent (Air Force Base). (dad) Lobbyists Victims Assistance for Violent Crimes. Netherlands Uncle: producer t.v. Ventura Star Newspaper Editor Ventura,Scientist, Litton Engineer current technology developed for military.Alaska Oil pipeline technician. (Dad) Boing Boing his inventions wood working. contribution to society T.V. Nike for graphic design. Photography, Authors,medical laboratory technicians Radio Network executives; Art/science and herbalist gardens,animals the rain forest we need to protect