Saturday, November 1, 2008

Tears and Laughter Khalil Gibran 1500's


The Time of Troubles ended with a new ruling house coming to power.

The Romanovs, till the 16th century bearing the surname of the
Zakharyins-Yurievs, was an old Russian boyar kin that in 1613 turned to be
the tzar's and in 1721 the emperor's family. The ancestor of the Romanovs
was Andrei Ivanovich Kobyla who lived in the second quarter of the 14th
century. The Romanovs bearing German and Polish-Lithuanian roots supposedly
appeared in Rus' in the late 13th century. The surname comes from Roman who
lived in the 16th century and whose daughter Anastasia became the wife of
Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. Following the marriage of Ivan the Terrible to
Anastasia Romanovna Zakharyina the family of the Zakharyins-Romanovs became
close to the tzar's court in the 16th century and after the cessation of the
Moscow branch of the Rurik dynasty it started pretending to the crown. Ivan
IV and Anastasia's son Fyodor was the last tsar from the Rurik dynasty.
Anastasia's brother Nikita Romanovich (died in 1586) was Head of the Boyar
Duma (parliament).

In 1613 Nikita's grandson Mikhail Romanov (1613-1645) aged 16 was
elected to rule the country, giving rise to the Romanovs dynasty that ruled
the country for 304 years, till the Revolution of 1917.

The first three Romanovs stabilized the situation in the country but
more time and action were required to liquidate the retardation of the
Russian state from European countries in economical, industrial, trading,
managing, educational, and military fields. With the 17th century a new
period in Russian history started: small landed nobility substituted the
boyars in power, but what was even more important - manufacturing began to
play a significant role in production. However, the time of radical changes
was still ahead, which became evident when the dynasty's strongest ruler,
Peter the Great, came to power.

The Romanovs' Reign Falls into Three Periods:

The first period - recovery after the Times of Troubles - encompasses
the reign of tsars Mikhail (1613-1645), Alexei Mikhailovich (1645-1676) and
Fyodor Alexeyevich (1676-1682). In this epoch Russia stood out as the
leading Slavonic power that incorporated huge territories in the South and
the West, including the left-bank Ukraine to Russian lands. Church and
nobility subdued to the tsar's power, whereas peasants were attached to the
land and made property of the landowners.

The second period - reign of Peter I the Great (1682-1725), Catherine
I (1725-1727), Peter II (1727-1730), Anna Ioannovna (1730-1740), Ivan VI
(1740-1741), Elizabeth (1741-1761), Peter III (1761-1762) and Catherine the
Great (1762-1796). During this period Russia turned into a prominent
European Empire with powerful army and fleet and its dominion expanded on
territories from the Baltic to the Black Seas. The dynasty of the actual
Romanovs ceased with the death of Elizabeth giving way to the
Holstein-Gottorp branch from Germany.

The last period fell on the reign of Pavel I (1796-1801), Alexander I
(1801-1825), Nicholas I (1825-1855), Alexander II (1855-1881) and Alexander
III (1881-1894). The victory in Napoleonic wars and expansion to Asia made
Russia a world power. However, Russia's internal development was still
behind the Western countries, in spite of its fast economic growth and
abolition of serfdom.

The Romanovs after 1917

In 1894 Nicholas II, the last Emperor from the Romanovs dynasty
mounted the throne. The February revolution of 1917 uncrowned Nicholas, and
later led to the execution of the tsar and his family by Bolsheviks in
Yekaterinburg on July 16, 1918.

By the beginning of 1917 the Romanovs dynasty numbered 32 male
members, 13 of whom were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918-19. Those who
managed to flee, settled down in the Western European countries (France
mainly) and the USA. In the 1920-30s the majority of the dynasty
representatives still hoped for the collapse of the Soviet power and
regaining monarchy in Russia.

All the contemporary representatives of the dynasty are descendants of
the four sons of Nicholas I. Altogether by the beginning of 2007 the
Romanovs kin counted 18 male representatives, six of whom were under the age
of forty.

The Most Famous Romanovs:

Peter I (Peter the Great)

Peter I (1682-1725) was an excellent example of the right person on
the right place and in the right time. Peter's reforms were of vital
importance for the country; they accelerated development of the Russian
state and almost liquidated the retardation from European states, turning
Russia into one of the most influential European powers. Peter was called
'the Great' not only for his height (224 cm) but also for his reforms,
including modernization in the spheres of production, trade and agriculture,
as well as foundation of the Russian fleet and the army reorganization.
Peter I is also granted for gaining ways to the Baltic and Asov seas, as
well as building the new Russian capital of Saint Petersburg at the eastern
end of the Gulf of Finland (the tsar's residence moved here in 1713). Peter's
reforms were aimed at putting Russia among the greatest world powers. To do
so, he enforced Western models of development in both political and social
spheres. Being very curious and opened to everything new, having no
prejudices against the foreign experience, the tsar undertook a diplomatic
mission to learn more about the Western style of life and the latest
technical achievements. He traveled like an ordinary man under an ordinary
name, lived and worked among ordinary sergeants, learned several crafts and
for some time even worked as a carpenter on a ship. He hired about a
thousand foreign experts to work in Russia and to modernize its army,
economy, industry and agriculture. Peter prohibited traditional dress for
all men, forced boyars to cut their beards and get shaved regularly,
enforced noble youths to study in educational institutions and insisted on
changing the manners of the noble men and the boyars. He introduced a new
calendar, simplified Russian alphabet, established the New Year celebrations
on January 1, organized publication of the first Russian newspaper and
ordered to create first theaters.

A new form of social life was borrowed from the West - an assembly.
These were social gatherings, where women as well as men participated, which
seemed revolutionary for that time. On assemblies new dresses and manners
could be demonstrated, all developed according to the latest European
trends.

During his reign Peter gained unlimited power in the country and was
proclaimed emperor in 1721, leading to the Russian state getting the status
of Empire. Peter the Great remains one of the most controversial figures in
Russian history. Although he undertook reforms in almost all spheres of life
in Russia, the question is which of them were favorable for his subjects and
which were imposed rather before time. Peter's rule was followed by a period
of political instability that became known as "the epoch of palace
revolutions", the last of which happened in the very beginning of the 19th
century. However, the most troubled years were those from the death of Peter
the Great in 1725 till 1762 - the year when Catherine the Great came to
power. During this period the Russian throne was occupied by six different
successors, whose accession, as well as ruling, was accompanied by intrigues
and palace coups. One of these conspiracies brought to power a German-born
princess, Catherine II, which really saved the situation.

Catherine II (Catherine the Great)

For the first time since the reign of Peter the Great his policy got a
serious successor. The reign of Catherine the Great (1762-1796) is sometimes
characterized as the Enlightened absolutism, referring to the empress'
interest in the ideas of Voltaire and Diderot. Catherine the Great
corresponded with the leaders of the French Enlightenment, discussing ways
of state development. Her reign was an epoch of great political and military
leaders (G.A. Potemkin, A.V. Suvorov, F.F. Ushakov). Moreover, Catherine
carried out several successful military campaigns, expanding Russia by
acquiring territories including those in Crimea, "key for the Black Sea" -
port of Ochakov, Belarus, Lithuania, right-bank part of Ukraine.

Alexander I

Catherine's epoch was followed by despotic and short reign of her son,
Paul I (1796 - 1801), who was killed in the last "palace revolution". Paul's
successor, Alexander I (1801 -1825), opened the third century of the
Romanovs' ruling by aiming at liberal changes in the country's life.
Catherine's favorite grandson, Alexander got a brilliant education and was
very well acquainted with the ideas of the French Enlightenment. And some
changes were really achieved, such as, for example, the government system
improvement. In 1802 eight ministries, new executive authorities, were
created, which contributed to the state centralization and strengthening.
Besides, Alexander I appeared to be a successful military leader: his reign
was marked by a glamorous victory over Napoleon troops in 1812, when Russia
became the first country that stopped a gigantic advance of the French
emperor. Nevertheless, Alexander did not solve the most urgent problems of
the time, those concerning serfs' status. The nobles' opposition and other
obstacles on the way towards liberal reforms led to the changes in Alexander's
policy that finally turned to reaction and even repressive measures. The
last provoked formation of the secret political societies and open revolt in
1825, when young officers, who got the name of the Decembrists, demanded
restriction of the absolute power of the monarch and freedom to the serfs.
However, unrests were suppressed, as well as liberal ideas that became
officially banned.

Nicholas I

Following the December events Nicolas's I (1825 - 1855) reign started
with a series of repressions against those intellectuals who opposed
absolutist regime. As the emperor was quite successful in this, his reign is
sometimes characterized by historians as the "apogee of absolutism".
Nevertheless, new revolutionary thoughts were uneasy to extirpate and they
went on developing throughout the century. Being modified and changed for
many decades, such ideas periodically found their way out leading to tragic
and irreversible events, among which was the assassination of Alexander II.

Alexander II

Successor of Nicolas I, Alexander II (1855-1881) carried out a range
of reforms, one of the most distinguishing among which was granting a
long-awaited freedom to the serfs. However, this did not save the emperor
from terrorist act planned and realized by one of the revolutionary groups,
the narodniki. The assassination of Alexander II shocked the society and led
to another reign of tough censorship and suppressions.

Alexander III

Alexander III (1881-1894) started his reign with implementing a strict
policy. Any intellectual activities that could somehow oppose the ruling
power were banned. Liberal reforms of the previous tsar were backed. The
emperor's main aim was to maintain a strong absolute monarchy and a powerful
empire. He got a byname of the "peacemaker" as during his reign Russia
almost did not participate in military conflicts.

Nicholas II

Despite absolutist rule of Alexander III, the image of a strong empire
was a shell that concealed a tangled knot of social and political
contradictions and it was Alexander's son, Nicolas II (1894-1917), who has
to face them. However, less and less space for absolute monarchy was left
and the number of its supporters also decreased. Radical changes were
required to save the situation but Nicolas II did not appear to be the
figure that could provide them. Defeat in Russian-Japanese war (1904-1905)
made the situation even worse. Popular discontent was rising day by day.

Sources: krugosvet.ru




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Related links
Romanovs Return from Italy (22.09.2008)
Russia Commemorates Last Emperor's Family (17.07.2008)
Seaching for Hemophilia Gene in Romanov Remains ( 8.07.2008)
Remains Discovered under Yekaterinburg Belong to Romanovs (11.04.2008)
Secret Letters of Romanovs Family Sold at Auction in Paris (29.11.2007)
Nicholas II, the Last Russian Emperor (24.10.2007)
Romanov's descendant to ask for Russian citizenship (10.10.2007)
Romanovs Castle in Lipetsk Region to be Renovated ( 4.10.2007)
Romanovs Royal Family May Become Tourist Brand (29.08.2007)
Last Mile of Romanovs` Royal Family Attracts Foreign Guests (10.08.2007)
Romanovs` Royal Family tourist route to open in 2008 (31.07.2007)
Exhibition Devoted to Saint Martyr Yelizaveta Fyodorovna Held in
Yekaterinburg (11.04.2007)
Dismissal of the Romanovs Rehabilitation Claim Recognized Illegitimate (
8.08.2006)
Yekaterinburg Opens Memorable Museum of the Romanovs ( 7.04.2006

1 comment:

ccRyderzz on the move. ghost said...

According to the boy's father, the actions of the police caused an elevated
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Ozark Police Capt. Thomas Rousset tried to condone the use of the taser in
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of cops is not patently ludicrous but also smacks of a desperate attempt to
cover up the true events in this case.To find the answer to these questions, we follow the journey of secret
societies from England to the New World and learn of their ancient hope: to
rebuild the lost empire of Atlantis.
ROMEO AND JULIET
TABLE OF CONTENTS

A Short History of Theatre 3
1 -- Prehistory 3
2 -- Egyptian Drama 3
3 -- Greek Drama 4 - 12
4 -- Roman Drama 13 - 17
5 -- Drama During the Early Middle Ages 18 - 20
6 -- Drama During the High Ages 21 - 30
7 -- Drama During the Late Ages 31 - 35
8 -- The Human Condition at the Beginning of the Renaissance 36
9 -- Periods of English Theatre After the End of the Middle Ages 37
10 -- Tudors and the Rise of Elizabethan Theatre 38 - 39
11 -- Playwrights of the Elizabethan / Jacobean Drama 40 -
The Triumvirate 40
The University Wits 40
Robert Greene 41 - 43
Thomas Kyd 44 - 45
Christopher Marlowe 46 - 66
Ben Jonson 67 - 72
John Fletcher 73 - 79
Francis Beaumont 80 - 82
John Webster 83 - 84
12 -- The Rise of the Commercial Playhouse 85 - 98
Public Theatres in London 85 - 93
The Coming of the Playhouses 85
The Theatre 86
The Curtain 87
The Rose 87 - 88
Newington Butts 88
The Swan 88
The Globe 88 - 92
The Fortune 92 - 93
The Red Bull 93
The Hope (The Bear Garden) 93
Private Theatres in London 94 - 95
Blackfriars 96
Whitefriars 96 - 98
The Cockpit in Court 99
The Phoenix 99
The Salisbury Court 100
Companies and Players 101 -
The Rise of Companies of Players 101 - 104
The Two Dominant Companies 105 - 103
The Lord Admiral's Men 105 - 107
The Lord Chamberlain's Men 107 - 115
The Less Well Known Companies 116 - 129
Worcester's Men 116
Sussex' Men 117
Pembroke's Men 117 - 120
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ccryderzz 1969 reinvested 2008 virginia wolf wildlife protector

I am a person who believes the fragile ecosystems are being destroyed we need alternate energy.. Years ago people understood the using of the land.. the old wisdom from the groups that were here, the Incas the Aztec's the trading routes created for to help give people on earth the needed items, not for a bunch of people too make a bazillion dollars on.. the energy was here for the taking in an natural way, to co-exist with humankind to live to and to let other cultures live and thrive. No one believes that they are to grow up to be a slave to men only a small group of men. Why? what is the normal way? Not to be greedy there is enough to share.. with each other. Quit taking money from people who can't even afford to go to the dentist.. think back on the doctors who traded for eggs a chicken or a cow.. go back to the old days. Think read be happy and content. with living within your own means. ZZ
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The blue birds are real

I sat on a river bank only to watch a bluebird take flight and chase the white bird and the eagle down to the rivers edge.
as I saw with my eyes the miracle of Gods grace on humankind. quote by ccryderzz

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